Sociologists for global development

A list of sociologists that could be used in the global development exam

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Global development sociologists
The terminology of development
Up until the 1990's the following terms were used to describe the difference in wealth around the world:
The `First World'- the West
The `Second World'- the communist countries
The `Third World'- the developing countries.
But due to the collapse of communism these terms are no longer widely used. Some sociologists saw these terms as
implying superiority and inferiority between the developed and developing world.
Other sociologists divides the world into the North (the industrialised world) and the South (and the developing
world), the Brant report doesn't equally divide the world into north and south like suggested in the report.
Now countries are classified in different ways:
MEDC's- developed countries mainly found in the West but which include Japan and Australia.
NIC's- the Asian tiger countries- China, Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Taiwan and South Korea, which have
rapidly industrialised in the past 40 years.
LEDC's these are mainly dependent on agriculture and raw materials although they have experienced some
industrialisation and fairly extensive urbanisation e.g. India, Brazil and Mexico. People enjoy a reasonable
standard of living, but social and economic process in these countries is impeded by massive debts and rural
poverty.
LLEDC's- these are the poorest countries in the world e.g. Bangladesh and Ethiopia. Despite lots of aid being
provided there is still wide spread absolute poverty and social and economic conditions for the citizens have
grown worse as a result of debt and civil war.

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Global development sociologists
Modernization theory
Title of paragraph Sociologist Explanation
The theory Durkheim Saw traditional societies being organised around `mechanical solidarity' (i.e.
the sharing of similar beliefs), evolving into more complex societies
organized around `organic solidarity' (beliefs are less likely to be shared.
The theory Tonnies Saw traditional societies being organised around `gemeinshaft' (i.e.
traditional community values reinforced by kinship and religion) giving way
to modern societies based around `gesellschaft' (i.e. community has been
replaced by more rational and superficial relationships).…read more

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Global development sociologists
Development Rostow Argued that traditional societies need to encourage Western companies to
invest in building factories and training the local people this would allow the
county to develop.
Modernization, Hoselitz Argued that the introduction of a meritocratic education system (paid for by
education and social official aid) will speed up the spread of Western values, thus speeding up the
engineering process of development.…read more

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Global development sociologists
Dependency theory
Title of paragraph Sociologist The theory
The theory Frank Argued that developing countries found it difficult to sustain
development along modernization lines, not because of their own
deficiencies, but because the developed West has deliberately and
systematically underdeveloped them in a variety of ways, leaving
them in a sense of dependency.
Neo- colonialism Frank Noted that new forms of colonialism have appeared that are more
subtle but as equally destructive as slavery and colonialism.…read more

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Global development sociologists
World systems theory
Title of paragraph Sociologist The theory
Criticism of Chase- Dunn Argue that the overly descriptive nature of dependency theory means
dependency and Gereffi that it doesn't have much explanatory power.
theory
The theory Wallerstein Individual countries or nation- states are not an adequate unit
of sociological analysis.…read more

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Global development sociologists
Aid and debt
Title of paragraph Sociologist The theory
The neo- liberal Bauer Argued that aid could not be necessary for development because
view: aid creates Northern countries didn't receive aid to help them develop. He
dependency suggests that aid implies that third world countries were incapable of
achieving what the West had achieved. The term aid is misleading he
says because it supplies something positive a more neutral term
would be `government to government subsidy'.…read more

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Global development sociologists
The resource trap- Collier argues that the discovery of
natural resources in the context of poverty also undermines
the efficient use of aid because it has social and economic
consequences that slow economic growth.
The being landlocked by a bad neighbour trap. Collier argue
for Africa in particular poverty matters.
The bad governance trap.…read more

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Global development sociologists
Projects that cause more damage to the environment
Projects that employ highly paid foreign experts, who have
little knowledge of local conditions and ignore the view of
local people.
The case for aid: The rich world could provide aid in the form of capital, expertise or
Modernization technology as a helping hand to those that are behind on the road to
theory prosperity and mass consumption.…read more

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Global development sociologists
More emphasis should be put on infrastructure and regional
links.
The World Bank, the IMF and United Nations development
programmes should be merged to bring about greater
coordination for aid projects.…read more

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Global development sociologists
Population and consumption
Title of paragraph Sociologist The theory
s
Sociological Thomas Argued that the populations increase in size at a much faster rate
explanations: Neo Malthus than the ability of those same populations to feed themselves. He
Malthusian concluded that these limits on food supply would lead to natural
Modernization theory checks on the population, such as famine and malnutrition- and
perhaps even war- as people fought over scarce resources. Such
checks limit population because they increase death rates.…read more

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