First 313 words of the document:
Building block: Socio-Cultural Factors
AO / IDA Content of paragraph
AO1 Bateson et al. contradictory parental messages lead to onset.
EG. Mother says `I love you' whilst turning head in disgust.
Double-Bind Verbal affection, non-verbal animosity.
Theory Prevents development of internally coherent construction of reality.
Manifests as symptoms.
AO2 Studies retrospective.
Berger et al. patients reported higher recall of double-bind statements.
Retrospective Relied on unreliable participant recall.
Support Illness itself also makes recall more inaccurate.
Studies lack validity.
AO2 Liem no difference in patterns of parental communication in families.
Also, can't be only reason or all siblings would develop.
Other Factors Need multi-dimensional approach take into account genetic vulnerability,
cognition and unconscious motivations.
AO1 Schizophrenia associated with negative emotional climate, or a high degree
of expressed emotion.
Expressed This family communication style involves criticism, hostility and emotional
Patients with a high EE family are four times more likely to relapse (Linszen
et al.) as triggers stress beyond an individual's coping mechanism, triggering
AO2 Kalafi and Torabi high prevalence of EE in Iranian culture (overprotecting
mothers and rejecting fathers) one of main causes for schizophrenic
When taking Diathesis-Stress Model into account, EE acts as an
environmental factor which tips genetic vulnerability into schizophrenic
AO2 Jenkins and Karno expressed emotion is less common in non-Western
Cultural Bias Could be because less individualist, less committed to concepts of personal
responsibility. Means less likely to criticise someone with schizophrenia for
Means the theory may not be relevant universally and may only apply to
Must have 2 detailed points of AO1 and 4 detailed evaluative points of AO2 = 12 marks