Socialism notes

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  • Created by: Liv Scott
  • Created on: 19-03-15 18:22
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Origins C19th , response to: industrial revolution, critique of capitalism, reaction
to social & economic conditions
Early socialist
Utopian socialists ­ "a perfect place"
o Charles Fourier- socialist communes (communities) Phalanges
o Robert Owen (1771- 1858)
Founding father of British socialism
Created a community based around a mill in new Lanark (nr
Egalitarian (equal) community
Shame (moral) capitalists into adopting his practices
Also created New Harmony in Indiana
Scientific/Revolutionary socialism Marxism
o Karl Marx (1840s-1870s) & Friendrich Engels
o Criticised Owen as Utopian
o Historical materialism ­ inevitable ­ end of history- communism
o Phases in history have a thesis, Antithesis and synthesis
Marx- from each according to his ability to each according to his need
Surplus value of labour ­ profit
False consciousness
Capitalism creates alienation (part of a cog in a machine)
Bourgasi- owns mans of production, monopolistic, gets smaller
Proletariat-sell labour
Socialism- key thinkers
Owen- (Criticised by Marxs as) Utopian socialism
Marx- Scientific socialism
o Discovered the laws of history
o Dialect- process of change
o Dialectical materialism- economic change
o Historical materialism- stages in history with Engles wrote the
communist manifesto 1848, wrote Das Capital Vols 1, 2 & 3
"Workers of all lands unite" (communist)
Marx distorted by others- state wither away
Gradualism- Democratic/Parliamentary socialism
The Fabines- middle class socialists 1870s
Ethical socialism
Graducal change to socialist society
G.B. Shaw, H.G. Wells, Sidney & Beatrice Webb
Ramesy MacDonald 1929-31 (PM)
Wall St crash, financial markets dipping
Wanted to spend more on public sector
But- implement cuts
Clement Attlee 1945-51

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Implemented NHS + Welfare state ­ 1948 ­ Beveridge (liberal)
Nationalised the "commanding heights" of the economy ­ Keynes
De colonisation
Heralded "Butskellism"
Criticised for not being socialist enough, didn't fully implement clause 4
Most socialist PM or more influenced by liberals
Anthony Crosland- 1950's
The future of socialism
Marxism little relevance today
Equality of opportunity
Social justice
Social democrat
Tackle poverty, healthcare & education
Harold Wilson 1964-70 & 1974-76
Nationalised steel- no other attempt to implement clause 4
Did not oppose the Vietnam war…read more

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ID Cards
-DNA database
- Detention without trial- 90 days
Chasing middle class votes
No income tax increase
Democratic socialism Social democracy
Want to change society & create a socialist Accept capitalism regulate the worst ex
Progressive taxation- wealth redistribution, Equality of opportunity
equality of outcome (goal)
Class struggle Appeal to middle classes
State owned economy Mixed economy
Nature not nurture Individual responsibility
Constitutional change e.g.…read more

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C19th co-operative societies
o goods bought cheaply for poor
Collective farms in soviet union
Egalitarianism ­ equality of outcome
o Not equality of opportunity ­ fosters inequality
3 Arguments
o Social equality = justice & fairness
o Social equality underpins community & co-operation ­ strengthens
o Social equality satisfies needs ­ "from each according to his ability
to each according to his needs" (Marx)
Achieved either through revolution or taxation
Class politics/struggle
Class the deepest division in society (not religion or gender)
Marx…read more

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Explain the term `gradualism' as it applies to socialism. (10 marks)
`Equality is the defining feature of socialism.' Discuss. (30 marks)
June 2013
Explain why socialists support collectivism. (10 marks)
`The Left in Britain has always been more committed to social democracy than
to socialism.' Discuss.…read more



These are so good! Thanks for sharing Liv.

Liv Scott


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