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Two Features of the Social Approach
1. Individuals and groups affect our behaviour ­ Whether it is being obedient, which we see in
Milgram's experiment (1963), where pps changed their behaviour when asked to by an
authority figure whom they trusted, or if it is a result of prejudice and discrimination, as seen
in social learning theory.
2. Culture and society affect our behaviour ­ Each culture is brought up differently and within
each culture are different values, morals and ideas of normal behaviour.…read more

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Milgram's Study of Obedience (1963)
The aim of the study was discover how far a person was willing to obey someone even if it meant
seriously harming or killing another person.
A volunteer sample of 40 male pps were selected, all from the same area (New Haven ) in
America.…read more

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Evaluation of Milgram's Study of Obedience
Milgram's study was not very generalisable because its sample included only men from a small town
(New Haven) in America all of whom were of similar ages.
The study was very reliable because it was a laboratory experiment and so was taken place in very
controlled conditions, for example all the experimenters and confederates read off of scripts
therefore exposing the pps to the same conditions.
This study is very applicable to real life.…read more

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Variation on Milgram's Study ­ Run Down Office
The aim of the study was discover whether the setting had an effect on a person's level of
The procedure was exactly the same as Milgram's original study except for the fact that it
took place in a run-down office block.
Only 47.5% of pps shocked to 450v, which is marginally lower than in Milgram's original study.…read more

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Multiple Choice Questions
Read the questions carefully. There is only one correct answer.…read more

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Chimpanzees…read more

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The participants all volunteered believing they were to do
(a) A study on aggression
(b) A study on power
(c) A study on memory and learning
(d) A study on electricity
4 The study broke the ethical guidelines of
(a) Deception
(b) Rights of participants to withdraw
(c) Protection of participants
(d) All of these
5 The dependent variable is
(a) The type of prods used…read more

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The presence of Mr Williams
(c) The level of shock given to learner
(d) The switches…read more

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Which one of these was not a prod used by Mr Williams
(a) `please continue/please go on'
(b) `the experimenter requires that you go on'
(c) `go on or else I will have to terminate the experiment'
(d) `it is absolutely essential that you go on'
7 In a later study carried out in a rundown office block, Milgram found
(a) Obedience rates were even higher
(b) Obedience rates were the same
(c) The study had to be terminated
(d) Obedience rates were slightly lower…read more


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