Social Policy, 1951- 2007

These are my notes for The Making of Modern Britain, 1951- 2007.

ANy questions i am happy to help, just PM

These are only my notes and you will need to consolidate your own knowldege also.

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  • Created by: Sharnie6
  • Created on: 29-05-15 10:29
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1951- 1964
Race appeared to be a great problem for society in this period,
give evidence.
1948: British Nationality Act- this allowed people from the commonwealth to
move to the UK with no barriers. Newcomers had full rights of British citizenship,
which further stimulated emigration from the West Indies.
The government encouraged immigration with organised appeals to Caribbean
workers to fill vacancies; principally in hospitals and transport services that the post-
war labour shortage had left. By mid-50s employers in Britain had extended thief
recruitment to the Indian subcontinent.
By the late 50s 'no coloured' notices appeared in boarding house windows and on
factory gates. Mutterings were heard that emigrants were attracted by the generous
welfare benefits. Troublemakers exploited the housing shortages by suggesting it sad
the fault of the immigrants. Landlords sold to those that could pay the most, small
white families could not afford as much as large groups of immigrants. This created
ghettos as well as increasing race relations, increasing crime rates, drugs, prostitution
What was the Salmon Report and what did it suggest, who did
Macmillan's government respond?
It suggested: that there was sexual jealousy of whites who resented white
women going out with Black males. The anger of whites at the willingness of Blacks to
work for low wages. Bitterness at the rise in rents, which whites believed, were a result
of the readiness of Blacks to live in cramped conditions and therefore pay higher
collective rents than individual whites could afford.
The government interpreted the disorder as a sign that immigrant numbers has
to be controlled. It introduces a Commonwealth Immigrants Act in 1962. This proved a
highly controversial measure and was condemned in many quarters as being racists,
since it places restriction of would-be entrants based on ethnic origin.
The Labour Party stoutly opposed the bill, but when in Government it introduced
a second Commonwealth Immigrations Act in 1968.
What was the reaction of the white people towards immigration?
Trade unions against blacks taking jobs at lower rates of pay, union leaders
lobbied governments to keep out black workers. Authorities saw immigration as
economically desirable because immigrants filled the low paid jobs e.g. Public transport.
A small number of MPs campaigned openly against immigration e.g. Enoch Powell,
but it was very rare. Oswald Mosley (leader of British Fascism) tried to exploit the

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issue and stir up racial hatred by printing thousands of leaflets.
However, this had very little electoral impact, so the British people were not as
politically affected by this issue.
Examples of Race Riots.
The Notting Hill Race Riots, 1958
Racially motivated, started a day earlier in Nottingham and spread, nobody
killed. Little physical damage, but lasted 4 days and 140 arrests of which were mainly
Bristol Bus Boycott, 1962
Bristol Omnibus Company refused to employ black or Asian staff.…read more

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Edward Boyle, minister of education 1962-1964, pushed for the abolition of the '11
plus' and the provision of better education for all children.
Was Britain a fair society?
The case of Alan Turing
Part of the team that cracked the Enigma Code during ww2. Christmas Eve 2013
he was given a posthumous royal pardon, after being convicted in 1952 for
homosexuality. As part of his punishment, Turing was chemically castrated, and he
committed suicide in 1954.…read more

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· The creation of welfare state under Attlee and its acceptance by the Conservatives
after 1951 were an acknowledgement that the well-being of the whole population was
a matter of national concern.
· The growing affluence of Britain in the 1950s and 1960s, the spread of wealth across
a much broader section of the population, and the consequent rise in the standards
had the effect of blurring class divisions.…read more

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of poverty which left those who did not share in the general prosperity embittered and
The teenagers and 20 year olds of the 1960s were the first generation to have
not lived through the grim times of the depression and the Second World War. They
were deliberately targeted by advertisers, eager to sell them clothes and pop records
and encouraged to regard themselves as special and unique. The scandals associated
with the government hardly set a good example.…read more

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1964- 1979
What was the impact of industrial disputes on society?
By the 1970s the nature of strike action had changed. Union leaders were no
longer in control e.g. Wildcat strikes, collective bargaining, replaced by a sharp increase
in working days lost. Workers were becoming politically empowered.
So much strike action meant working class communities felt their way of life was
under threat from the state, close knit community therefore community went on strike.…read more

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However, did not apply to the army or police.
How did the influx of Kenyan and Ugandan Asians cause social
Fleeing black majority in new independent Kenya were told they were always
welcome in the UK. TV images provoked fear, as more than 100,000 took up the
opportunity to get a UK passport.
The Government
Labour Party has attacked Conservative policies which aimed at limiting
immigration. 1965: Wilson's government put forward a White Paper proposing further
controls on immigration.…read more

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Divorce women no longer left penniless, the wife's contribution to marriage
would now be recognised. This was supported by Feminists, and led to a fairer society.
The Abortion Act
Legal termination if two doctors certified that there was a serious risk to the
physical or mental health of the mother.…read more

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1979- 1990
Why was there social unrest in Thatcher's first government?
There were poor job prospects in the deprived inner-city areas, alienation of
young black people who felt they were discriminated against by the authorities,
particularly the police. There was high incidence of unemployment among school leavers,
and a strong feeling that the disturbances were deliberately started or whipped up by
political troublemakers.…read more

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What did Thatcher do, in terms of status of women?
Feminists pointed out how Thatcher was unwilling to support female causes,
leading her to be called 'a woman but not a sister'. In 11 years she only appointed one
woman to her cabinet, Linda Chalker. She made no effort to introduce structural
changes to advance the role of women, the 'glass ceiling' remained.
However she did challenge the idea of male dominance e.g.…read more


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