Social Learning Theory: Explanation of Crime

This is one of two explanations of why there is crime, mostly focuses on the topic "Media Violence".

Tip: look over AS notes on this theory and look up some cases (one suggested on slide show) related to media violence.

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Slide 1

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Social Learning Theory
Explanation of crime…read more

Slide 2

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Social Learning Theory Re-cap
· Bandura suggested a modelling process where behaviour was
taught by observation.
· The observer would imitate a role model, someone that can be
identified with, usually the same gender and with a high status.
· Attention: Behaviour needs to be noticed before imitation can begin
to occur.
· Retention: Behaviour has to be remembered in order for
reproduction to occur.
· Reproduction: Behaviour is then reproduced.
· Motivation: There has to be a good reason for demonstration of
behaviour.…read more

Slide 3

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Operant Conditioning: roles of
· Motivation can be in the forms of positive and negative
· The Social Learning Theory suggests that the 2nd crime committed
would be similar/same to the original crime as it would follow the
pattern of reinforcement.
· Positive reinforcement: a gain of some kind, usually financial,
material or even approval from peers or the role models themselves.
· Negative reinforcement: removal of something bad if the crime is
committed, think blackmail.
· Punishment: Deters criminal behaviour.…read more

Slide 4

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Roles of media + SLT
· There is more access to witness criminal behaviour through the
media than everyday life. 70-80% of TV programmes estimated to
have aggressive acts in them.
· Suggested to have an affect on those who have a pre-disposition to
violence. Factors such as the amount of television watched and the
amount of prosocial compared to antisocial programmes watched.
· It is believed media violence could have 3 possible affects on
1. Becoming desensitised to violence, they become less disturbed
when witnessing it than those who don't watch violence on TV.
2. May be more afraid of violence in general.
3. Maybe more likely to act aggressively and violently.…read more

Slide 5

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Motivation Found In Media
· Anti-social behaviour is rarely punished, characters are usually
praised. It is sometimes glamorised.
· Video games reward killing and the bodies disappear off the screen
with no consequences in place.
· Example: Columbine school massacre 1999. Klebold and Harris re-
enacted their version of the game `Doom'.…read more

Slide 6

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Bandura Variation
· Aim: Observe children response to seeing TV footage of an aggressive
model either punished, rewarded or has no consequence.
· Procedure: Lab experiment. 33 boys and 33 girls (22 kids in each control).
Children watched TV on own the footage involved `Rocky' abusing a bobo
doll with the ending different depending on the condition. Model rewarded:
called a "strong champion" and given a drink. Model punished: given a
spank, called a bully and threatened with more spanking. No consequence:
no alternative ending. 2 observers watched the children and tallied
aggressive behaviour when led in a room with a bobo doll and other toys.
After ten minutes the child was asked to demonstrate what `Rocky' did they
were rewarded with stickers and drink.
· Findings: no consequence and model rewarded imitated significantly more
than model punishment. All could repeat significant amount of aggressive
acts when asked.
· Conclusion: Punishment does stop imitation of aggressive behaviour
however it does not prevent the degree to which they learn it.…read more

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