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Key Words
· Conformity a change in a person's behaviour or opinions due to
real or imagined group pressure
· Obedience following the orders of someone we believe to be in
· Social Loafing putting less effort into doing something when you
are with others doing the same thing
· Deindividuation when we lose our sense of individuality and
become less aware of our own responsibility for our actions…read more

Slide 3

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Key Study- Milgram
· Aim: To see how far people would follow an unreasonable order
· Method: Male participants were the `teachers' and the confederate was
the `learner'. The `learner' has to remember pairs of words and the
`teacher' had to deliver a shock every time the `learner' made a mistake.
The voltage went up each time from 15 volts to the maximum of 450 volts
· Results: All participants gave 300 volt shocks and 65% of participants gave
the maximum 450 volt shock
· Conclusion: People will obey an authority figure even if they know it is
causing distress…read more

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· The study lacks ecological validity because it was done in a laboratory and so
participants behaviours may have been affected by the situation
· Because it was a laboratory based experiment, variables were tightly controlled
which means the experiment could be repeated accurately etc.
· It's extremely unethical- participants were put under a lot of stress and were
made to feel uncomfortable. They were also deceived because they did not know
the real aim of the experiment and a confederate was used
· Only white, American men were used so the results cannot be generalised to
other groups (women, different cultures etc.) and therefore it is not
representative of the target population…read more

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Factors Affecting Obedience
· If a person is in uniform, we are more likely to obey them because we
think they know more than we do (socialisation)
· If we have started to do something and we are asked to do more, it is
difficult to know when to stop
· If you cannot see the victim of the actions
· Not feeling responsible- you've been told to do it by someone else…read more

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· Normative social influence:
-we want to fit in, be accepted and liked or not to be ridiculed e.g.
wearing a certain type of top because it is the fashion
· Informed social influence:
-we are unsure of how to act and regard others as having more
knowledge than we have e.g. the fire alarm going off at school- you
follow what everyone else does/ where everyone else goes…read more

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