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3B ­ Gender and Inequality

The Price of Sex ­ M. Bunting, The Guardian
The cost of being female in Britain is nearly 50% less income than a male.
It is women's caring responsibilities that cripple their achievements in the labour market
and expose them to the risk of poverty…

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Goodman and Shephard (2002) say it is important to compare male and female wages across
similar jobs and to control for other factors such as length of service. Women tend not to work as
many hours as men so a distinction has to be made hourly earnings and weekly earnings.…

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At the same time as women have been advancing, some groups of men seem to have been
retreating the employment rate of men has been declining over the past 20 / 30 years. Beynon
(2002) argues that deindrustrialisation (the decline of manufacturing) was damaging for many
working class men: `The…

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men as being concentrated in the primary sector (skilled labour, sound training, high job security,
good pay and promotion prospects) while women are mainly confined to the secondary sector
(with the opposite characteristics).

However the theory has received a number of criticisms
It is no certain that the contemporary labour…

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Feminist have taken this theory further by arguing that in the modern world it is mainly women
who fill the ranks of the reserve army. Also socialist/Marxists feminists have moved away from
Marx's purely economic explanation by adding some cultural explanations. Married women are
often regarded as secondary workers whose…

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One class position is formed in the domestic mode of production, where husbands and
wives constitute separate classes (husbands exploit the domestic labour of wives).
A second class is within the capitalist mode of production where class is determined by
particular work and employment situations.
Whereas husbands and wives form…

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It seems that increasing numbers of households ­ especially `dual career' ones, where both
parents work are paying others to do some of their domestic chores. But most cooking, cleaning,
childcare, and routine maintenance within households is still performed by the household
members themselves. This housework or `domestic labour'…

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The amount of time fathers spend with their children rose from less than 15 minutes (on
an average weekday) in the mid 1970's to 2 hours a day in the late 1990's.
At weekends it's risen even further to an average of 6 hours each day.

Nevertheless the main burden…

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employment opportunities and childcare arrangements, then they would be more
enthusiastic about fulltime work.

3. Childcare Problems are the Main Barrier to Women's Employment
Hakim argues it all depends on women's priorities. Poor childcare facilities have not
prevented large numbers of women from combining fulltime work with family
responsibilities. But…

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Ginn et al offer an alternative explanation. They argue that women's attitudes to work are largely
shaped by the wider social context and this places limits on real choices available to women and
force many of them to scale down their work ambitions.

Responding to these criticisms Hakim has denied…




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