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Social Facilitation Studies
Key Study Aim Methods Results Conclusion
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Triplett (1898) Based on an observation that OBSERVATION He found that cyclists were slowest
`Cyclists) competing cyclists produced faster when racing alone and fastest when
times when racing with other cyclists racing with a pacemaker or in a racing
rather than when they are alone. group.
Triplett (1898) Devised a laboratory experiment P's were instructed to wind a line on a Performance was faster in the P's performance at the task was
Fishing Reel whether or not performance would be fishing reel as quickly as they could. presence if another person than facilitated (enhanced) by the presence
enhanced in the presence of other Following a practice period, P's performed when the task was performed of another person -performing the same
people performing the same task. the task both alone and in pairs, alternating alone. P's were about 1% faster task. The mere presence of another
between the 2 conditions. In each trial, the when working in pairs than when person performing the same task =
P's were timed to determine how long it took working alone. social facilitation.
to make approx. 150 winds
Michaels (1982) Conducted a study to test the Firstly student pool players were observed Above average: potted 80%(not Supports Zajonc's theory of dominant
prediction that the presence of an in the Student's Union Building. Following alone) and 71% (alone) response D.R. of skilled pool players
audience would facilitate well-learned observation, 12 players were selected: 6 Below average: potted 25% (not was to pot balls & D.R. of unskilled is to
behaviours & inhibit poorly learned were identified as above average and the alone) and 36 (alone) miss. An audience facilitates the D.R.
behaviours. other 6 were below average at playing pool.
In the 2nd part 4 observers stood around a
pool table and observed the players over a
no. of games.
Bartis (1988) Investigated whether or not evaluation P's were given a basic thinking task of Performing the simple task Evaluation apprehension performance
apprehension would lead to thinking of as many uses of knifes. 1 group: evaluation apprehension condition on a simple task BUT on a complex
improvement in performance on a had to make a list of their uses produced more uses than the other task.
simple task & inhibition of a (performance identified). 1 group were told 2 P's.
performance on a complex task. only have creative uses. Those doing the complex task
those in the evaluation
apprehension condition produced
Saunders To test the effect of distraction conflict Participants were set either a simple/difficult Participants in a high distraction In support of the distraction-conflict
(1978) on performance of a task task. Had a co-actor doing the same task condition (same task as the co- theory of social facilitation.
(distraction conflict). actors). Performed at a higher level
on a simple task BUT produced
more errors on the complex task.
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Zajonc (1969) Cockroaches were placed in a tube with a Cockroaches were faster to escape Audience increases performance on
bright light at 1 end. To escape it had to run when other cockroaches were easy straight ahead task BUT not on the
to a darkened box at the other end. present. more complex turning task.…read more