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Sociology ­ Internal
By chynnel…read more

Slide 2

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Factors affecting social class
· This PowerPoint will be discussing the internal factors affecting social
class achievement in terms of Labelling by teacher, Labelling by peers
and school organization.…read more

Slide 3

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Labelling by teachers
· Study: Rosenthal and Jacobson
· They did a field experiment on children in a school and picked certain
children (20%) and labelled them as spurters. The teachers were told
these children were most likely to do well even though this was not true.
· After a year with lack of observational data, R and J found that the
pupils that were labelled had improved academically more than the
other pupils.
· They concluded the teachers must have reinforced positive labels on
them and this became a self-fulfilling prophecy.…read more

Slide 4

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Criticisms of R and J
· Hargreaves criticises R and J because he says for a label to stick it
depends on several factors which include:
· If peers reinforce the label for it to stick
· The label that is given to the pupil
· Whether they value the opinions of the teacher labelling them
· How many times they are labelled…read more

Slide 5

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Labelling by peers
· Benyon's study showed how pupils in the first few weeks of high school
labelled each other and this was used as the basis of forming friendship
groups. These groups included : weirdoes, dippoes, teachers pets and bullies.
· Willis' study also shows peer labelling. As the 12 working class lads prepared
themselves for their future of their low status jobs and therefore accepted
that they were going to improve their status and this would not be part of their
working class culture anyway.
· They did not conform to the values and attitudes and created a anti-
subculture. This was to `have a laff' to cope with boredom on school which
they destined for in their future jobs.
· They also picked on the `ear holes' (teachers pets) and these where boys who
were undermining there masculinity by conforming to the values of the school
and trying to succeed in education. - They accepted educational failure…read more

Slide 6

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Study: Ball
· Ball's study showed how M/C and W/C where streamed and put
into different sets which affected their educational achievement.
· The M/C pupils were put into the higher streams. They were more
likely to be given positive labels and where therefore `warmed up'
in education and given encouragement to pursue higher
· On the other hand. The W/C where given more negative labels
and put in lower streams and where not given as much
encouragement and where advised to go into more vocational
professions. They were `cooled out' of the education system.…read more


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