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Social studies




Milgram
Aim to investigate what level of obedience will be shown from the participants when they are told to
administer electric shocks to another person.
Participants 40 men from New Haven were recruited via poster and newspaper advertisements. They
were aged between 20-50years and were paid $4.50 to…

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Social studies


Milgram was able to prove that the `Germans are different' hypothesis was untrue as the Americans
were also as obedient. He believes that it is the situation that people find themselves in rather than their
dispositions that best explains their action.


Reicher and Haslam
Aim to analyse the…

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Social studies


Prisoners were standardised.
Prisoners had their heads shaved and given uniform: t-shirt with a number, loose trousers and
sandals.
Prisoners were given a list of prison rules and prisoner's rights.

Guards were also standardised.
Guards were told to run the institution smoothly as they were responsible.
Guards were…

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Social studies


o White victim
o Drunk victim
o Caned victim
o Early model
o Late model
o Bystanders/crowd size

Dependent variables (the observers noted):
o Time taken for the first passenger to help.
o Time taken for the first passenger to help after the model stepped in.
o Total…

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Social studies


Usefulness ­ advices to prisons, emergency services and training armed forces about
the dangers of following extreme orders.
Weaknesses Reductionist ­ underestimates individual differences (dispositional factors) and the
nature/biology.
Unethical ­ No consent and psychological harm.
Sample rep/gen

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