Social Influence Revision Sheet

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CONFORMITY (ASCH) obedience (milgram)
PROCEDURE: Confederates deliberately
gave wrong answers to see if p would
FINDINGS: Naive p's conformed on
sOCIAL procedure: P's gave fake electric shocks to a
`learner' in obedience to instructions from
findings: 65% gave highest shock of 450v.
36.8% of trials. 25% never 100% gave shocks up to 300v. Many showed
conformed. signs of anxiety.
variations: Conformity increased up
Good external validity: findings generalise to
to group size of 4. Dissenter reduced
other situations such as hospital wards
conformity. Conformity increased
Supporting replication: `game of death' found
when task was harder.
80% gave maximum shock and similar
Time/Culture based: Perrin +
Spencer found less conformity in CONFORMITY (types + explnations) anxieties
Low internal validity: p's realised shocks were
1980 than 50's
Artificial task + situation: Demand internalisation: Private + public acceptance fake but replication w/ real shocks got similar
of group norms results
Limited application of findings: Asch's identification: Change behaviour to be part
research only conducted on
American men
of a group we identify with
obedience (situational minority influence
compliance: Go along w/ a group publicly but consistency: If minority is
no private change variables) consistent this attracts
CONFORMITY (zimbardo) informational social influence: Conforming proximity: Obedience attention of minority over
PROCEDURE: Mock prison w/ students decreased to 40% when
to be right. Assuming others know better teacher could hear learner, commitment: Augmentation
randomly assigned as guards/ than us. and 30% in touch proximity principle - personal sacrifices
prisoners normative social influence: Conforming to condition show commitment + attract
FINDINGS: Guards became increasingly be liked or accepted by a group. Location: Obedience attention
brutal, prisoners increasingly decreased to 47.5% when Flexibility: Minority more
withdrawn + distressed Research support for ISI: more conformity to study moved to run-down convincing if they accept
conclusions: P's conformed to their incorrect maths answers when they were office block some counter-arguments
roles as guards/prisoners uniform: Obedience process of change: Above
Lack of realism: p's play- decreased to 20% when factors make majority think
acting roles according to `member of public' was more deeply about issue -
media-derived stereotypes
Only 1/3 of guards were
obedience experimenter snowball effect
Random assignment to roles
(dispositional Research support: Beckman Research support for
showed power of uniform in
explanations) field experiment
consistency: Moscovici's blue/
green slides
procedure: Adorno et al used Cross-cultural replications: Research support for depth
obedience (social- F-scale to study unconscious
cross-cultural findings of thought: minority views
support Milgram have longer effect because
psychological attitudes towards other racial
Lack of internal validity: some they are deeply processed
of Milgram's procedures Artificial tasks: tasks often
factors) findings: People w/ contrived, so not genuine trivial so tell us little about
agentic state: Acting as an authoritarian personalities obedience real-life influence
identify w/ the `strong' and
agent of another have fixed cognitive style
Autonomous state: Free to authoritarian resistance to social influence
act according to conscience
characteristics: Extreme social support: Reduces conformity by social change
binding factors: Allow respect for authority + presence of dissenters from group. special role of minority influence:
individual to ignore damaging obedience to it Decreases obedience is presence of Minority influence is a powerful force for
effects of their obedient disobedient peer who acts as role model.
behaviour origin of ap: Harsh Research support: conformity decreases
innovation + social change (e.g. civil rights
parenting creates hostility movement USA)
Research support: Blass + when one person dissents (even if they
Schmitt found that people do that cannot be expressed are not credible) & obedience drops when
lessons from conformity research:
bake the legit authority for against parents so is disobedient role models are present Normative social influence can lead to
the p's behaviour displaced social change by drawing attention to
Limited explanation: cannot Research support: some of what majority is doing
explain why some of Milgram's obedient p's had locus of control: LOC is sense of what Lessons from obedience research:
Milgram's p's disobeyed AP's directs events in our lives
Limited explanation: can't Disobedient role models. Gradual
continuum: High internal at one end and commitment is how obedience can lead
Legitimacy of authority: explain increase in
high external at the end to change.
obedience across a whole
Created by hierarchical culture (social identity resistance to si: People w/ high internal
nature of society better theory) LOC more likely to be able to resist Research support: NSI valid explanation
destructive authority: Politcal bias: equates AP w/ pressures to conform/obey of social change, e.g. reducing energy
r-wing ideology and ignores Research support: Internals less likely to consumption
When legitimate authority
extreme l-wing fully obey in Milgram-type procedure Only indirectly effective: effects of
becomes destructive
authoritarianism Contradictory research: people have minority influence are limited because
Cultural differences: explains
become more external + more they are indirect + appear later
obedience in different
cultures as it reflects disobedient recently (hard for LOC to
different social hierarchies explain)


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