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TOPIC 1- LIFESTYLE, HEALTH & RISK

WATER
H-Bonds creates adhesive affect- high mp/bp relative to similar sized
molecules
Excellent solvent- dipole allows ionic substances to be dissolved- polar
substances also dissolve
Carries non-polar substances as COLLOIDS (solute particles bigger than
solvent)
Insoluble particles form EMULSIONS (droplets of one liquid held…

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Superior Vena Cava ­ vein-carries deoxygenated blood from the upper body to
right atrium.
Pulmonary Veins ­carries blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
Right Atrium ­blood collection chamber of the heart, it has a thin walled
structure
Left Atrium ­ this receives oxygenated blood from…

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Controls heart- as nerves speed the heart or slow down- dependant on CO2
levels in blood- nerve control provides quick reactions- hormones also affect
heart rate but generally slower.

CORONARY ARTERIES
Feed myocardial (heart muscle) ­ above aortic valve from aorta so received
straight away and quickly.

BLOOD PRESSURE
Measured…

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converts prothrombin to thrombin- this converts soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin
that creates a mesh-like network of fibres trapping cells + debris to = a clot.




Cascade =
Damage to lining- increased likelihood of clot- if clot occurs, inflammatory
response- cholesterol builds up = atheroma- build up of calcium, salts…

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% have disease small group individuals suffering best representative than large
sample with one or two sufferers.

CARBOHYDRATES
All composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.
Three main groups- monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides

Monosaccharides- single sugar molecules containing 1 Oxygen atom and 2
Hydrogen atoms for each Carbon.
(C H2 O)n…

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To be good store, bonds in carbohydrates need to be broken to release single
sugars for cells to use. Glycosidic bond between monosaccharides split by
hydrolysis- opposite condensation- water required/ added to bond. Hydrolysis
takes place in digestion/ in muscle and liver cells.

LIPIDS
Fatty acids + glycerol (3 fatty…

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Filter fruit juice sample- add to burette, add to 1cm3 of DCPIP until DCPIP is
colourless- greater volume of liquid less vitamin C-repeat with other juices
ensure thorough cleaning
Problems can occur with judging when DCPIP has decolourised and potential to
read burette wrong- vitamin C containing juice added 1…

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phospholipids bilayer- phosphate
prosthetic group attached to
glycerol of lipid. Glycerol and
phosphate= hydrophilic head, lipid
`tails' are hydrophobic fatty acids.
Chemical pass through layer by
carrier/channel proteins-
fat-soluble organic molecules and
small molecules e.g. water can pass
through.
Cholesterol regulates fluidity.
Glycoproteins- function in cell signalling, recognition and binding…

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DEOXYRIBOSE has OH, off carbon on bottom left pentagon corner, and H on
bottom right, RIBOSE has both OH.
Phosphate group- makes nucleic acids acidic
Sugar, Base and phosphate joined by CONDENSATION REACTIONS- loss 2 H20
molecules.
Mononucleotides linked by condensation reaction- polynucleotide strands.
Sugar from one bonds to phosphate…

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mutations. When somatic (body) cells have mutations- specific enzymes
remove faulty area- acts as scissors.
Point mutation- change in gene itself- miscopying nucleotides
Chromosomal mutation- change in position of gene on chromosome
Gene deletion- loss of gene
Duplication- gene or gene sequence repeated
Inversion- genes wrong way round
Translocation- different…

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Ibrahim.3

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thanks alot , i really appreciate you work :)

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