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Voice of the Genome
TOPIC 3…read more

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Topic Overview
· Gamete structure and function
· Fertilisation
· Mitosis/meiosis
· Cell cycle
· Stem cells
· Gene expression
· Specialised cells (working together)
· Environmental/genetic factors…read more

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Prokaryotic cells (before the nucleus)
· Small
· DNA not associated with any proteins and lies free in
the cytoplasm
· Bacteria and cyanobacteria
· Cell wall…read more

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Eukaryotic cells (true nucleus)
· Cells containing membrane-bound organelles such as
nuclei and mitochondria
· Plant and animal cells
· Doesn't necessarily have a cell wall
·Larger…read more

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Movement in cells
· Continual movement of molecules in cells
· RNA ­ nucleus > ribosomes (protein synthesis)
· Enzymes, hormones, signal proteins released from
· Movement of proteins requires ER, Golgi apparatus
and vesicles
· Rough ER has attatched ribosomes. Ribosomes make
proteins and ER transports them
· Transport vesicles move molecules between
locations inside the cell…read more

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Ovum adaptations
· Large ­ cytoplasm has room for a large protein and lipid food store
· Incapable of independent movement - wafted
along oviduct from ovary to uterus by ciliated cells and muscle
· Surrounded by jelly-like zona pellucida ­ digested
by sperm during fertilisation. Layer thickens after the first sperm has fused
with membrane, preventing entry to any further sperm.
· Releases chemicals to attract sperm
· Haploid nucleus ­ contains only half of the genetic material
required for humans, 23 single chromosomes, as when the nuclei fuse
there will be a full set of DNA…read more

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