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Unit 3
Voice of the genome

Eukaryotic and prokaryotic:

Eukaryotic Prokaryotic
(eukaryote) (Prokaryotes)
`true nucleus' `before/ no nucleus'
Membrane bound organelles Membrane no bound organelles


In the cell and the differences between an animal and plant cell:

Ribosomes make protein (proteinsynthesis)
Mitochondria site of aerobic respiration






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Bacteria cell:









































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Mitosis and Meiosis:

Mitosis Meiosis

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Number of chromosomes in 46 46
parent cell Diploid Diploid
Number of chromosomes in 46 23
daughter cell Diploid Haploid
Number of divisions 1 2
Used in... Growth and repair Gametes
Number of daughter cells 2 4
Daughter cells genetically Yes No
identical?









































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n= haploid

2n= diploid

3n= triploid



Mitosis stages:














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Fertilisation in flowering plants:

1. Germinating pollen grain moves down the stigma and down the style.
2. Pollen tube grows down through style towards the ovary
3. Pollen grain generative nucleus divides to form 2 haploid gamete nuclei which move down
the pollen tube.
4. Tube grows through pore into…

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Transcription and Translation:

Transcription: in the nucleus

1. Transcription of DNA to mRNA.
2. mRNA leaves the nucleus.



Translation: on the ribosomes and in the cytoplasm

3. Protein made on ribosomes enter the rough
ER.
4. Protein moves through the ER assuming 3D
shape en route.
5. Vesicles pinch off…

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7. Proteins are modified within the Golgi apparatus.
8. Vesicles pinched off the Golgi apparatus contain the modified protein.
9. Vesicle fuses with cell surface membrane releasing protein, such as extracellular enzymes.






Transcription and translation in more detail:

Transcription: in the nucleus

During transcription a RNA copy of a gene…

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