SNAB topic 3- voice of the genome

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Unit 3
Voice of the genome
Eukaryotic and prokaryotic:
Eukaryotic Prokaryotic
(eukaryote) (Prokaryotes)
`true nucleus' `before/ no nucleus'
Membrane bound organelles Membrane no bound organelles
In the cell and the differences between an animal and plant cell:
Ribosomes make protein (proteinsynthesis)
Mitochondria site of aerobic respiration

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Bacteria cell:…read more

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Mitosis and Meiosis:
Mitosis Meiosis…read more

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Number of chromosomes in 46 46
parent cell Diploid Diploid
Number of chromosomes in 46 23
daughter cell Diploid Haploid
Number of divisions 1 2
Used in...…read more

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Mitosis stages:…read more

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Fertilisation in flowering plants:
1. Germinating pollen grain moves down the stigma and down the style.
2. Pollen tube grows down through style towards the ovary
3. Pollen grain generative nucleus divides to form 2 haploid gamete nuclei which move down
the pollen tube.
4. Tube grows through pore into embryo sac and 2 male nuclei enter the sac
5. 1 fuses with the egg cell= diploid zygote while the second fuses with 2 nuclei in embryo
sac= polar nuclei which form the triploid cell.…read more

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Transcription and Translation:
Transcription: in the nucleus
1. Transcription of DNA to mRNA.
2. mRNA leaves the nucleus.
Translation: on the ribosomes and in the cytoplasm
3. Protein made on ribosomes enter the rough
4. Protein moves through the ER assuming 3D
shape en route.
5. Vesicles pinch off the rough ER contain the
6. Vesicles from rough ER fuse to form the
flattened sacs of the Golgi apparatus.…read more

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Proteins are modified within the Golgi apparatus.
8. Vesicles pinched off the Golgi apparatus contain the modified protein.
9. Vesicle fuses with cell surface membrane releasing protein, such as extracellular enzymes.
Transcription and translation in more detail:
Transcription: in the nucleus
During transcription a RNA copy of a gene is made in the nucleus:
1. Hydrogen bonds between the two DNA strands in a gene break, separating the strands
and the DNA molecule uncoils at that point.
2.…read more


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