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Unit 2
Genes and health

The effects of CF on the lungs:

CF= Cystic Fibrosis
Air is drawn into the lungs via the trachea due to a lower pressure in the lungs, created by
the movement of the ribs and diaphragm.
Trachea divides into 2 bronchi which carry air to…

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In unicellular organisms the whole cell surface membrane is the exchange surface.
Substances that diffuse into or out of a cell move down a concentration gradient (from a
high to low concentration).
The gradients are maintained by the cell continuously using the substances absorbed and
producing waste. For example oxygen…

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Primary structure:

Two amino acids join in a condensation reaction to form a dipeptide, with a peptide bond
forming between the two subunits.
This process can be repeated to form polypeptide chains which may contain thousands of
amino acids. A protein is made up one or more of these polypeptide…

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Tertiary Structure:
The final 3D structure of a protein is its Tertiary Structure, which pertains to the shaping of the
secondary structure. This may involve coiling or pleating, often with straight chains of amino
acids in between.

Tertiary Structure: The final 3D structure of a protein, entailing the shaping of…

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o Fibrous They proteins form long fibres and mostly consist of repeated sequences of amino
acids which are insoluble in water. They usually have structural roles, such as: Collagen in bone
and cartilage, Keratin in fingernails and hair.







Quaternary Structure:
Some proteins are made up of multiple polypeptide chains, sometimes…

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Phospholipid bilayer:












The fluid mosaic model:

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