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BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS
· ANY CHANGE IN BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY THAT REPEATS PERIODICALLY
CIRCADIAN (EVERY 12 HOURS) INFRADIAN (GREATER THAN 24 HOURS) ULTRADIAN (LESS THAN 24 HOURS)
WILKINSON DALTON FRIEDMAN AND FISHER
TESTED NAVY RECRUITS FOR VIGILANCE SUMMARISED STUDIES OF BEHAVIOURAL PLACED PPTS IN A LUXURY ENVIRONMENT
AND ARITHMETIC AFTER SLEEP AND SLEEP CHANGES BEING ASSOCIATED WITH THE WITH FOOD AND DRINK. FOUND A RHYTHM
LOSS. FOUND A PEAK PERFORMANCE WITH MENSTRUAL CYCLE. FOUND 63-84% CRIMES OF 85 ­ 100 MINUTES FOR ORAL ACTIVITY,
HIGH BODY TEMPERATURE, AND POOR COMMITTED BY WOMEN OCCURRED PRE- WHICH DECREASED UNDER STRESS.
PERFORMANCE WITH LOW BODY MENSTRUAL CYCLE. SUGGESTS AN CHILDREN WERE FOUND TO FOLLOW A
TEMPERATURE. INFRADIAN RHYTHM OF A FLUCTUATION OF SHORTER CYCLE, OF 35 MINUTES ATTENTIVE,
HORMONES. 35 MINUTES RESTLESS. EXAMPLES OF
THE BODY HAS LOW BODY TEMPERATURE ULTRADIAN RHYTHMS IN EVERYDAY LIFE.
DURING SLEEP, WHICH OCCURS EVERY 12
HOURS. THIS IS A TIME IN WHICH BODILY
SYSTEMS REDUCE FUNCTIONING.…read more

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RESEARCH INTO EPS AND EZS
AO1 AO2 AO3
EP ­ ENDOGENOUS PACEMAKER. CONTROL OUR SIFFRE ­ SPENT SIX MONTHS IN A CAVE WITH NO LACK OF ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY ­ ALL SUPPORTING
BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS. OUR INTERNAL BODILY EZS. EXPERIENCED AN ERRATIC SLEEP/WAKE CYCLE STUDIES TOOK PLACE IN LAB SETTINGS. NOT TRUE
MECHANISMS THAT RUN OUT `BODY CLOCK' AT FIRST BUT IT EVENTUALLY SETTLED INTO A 25 TO LIFE SO HOW FAR CAN WE APPLY FINDINGS?
HOUR PATTERN. SHOWS HUMANS DO NOT
EZ ­ EXOGENOUS ZEITGEBER. EXTERNAL STIMULI NATURALLY RUN AT A 24 HOUR CIRCADIAN CYCLE, USE OF ANIMALS ­ ZUCKER INFLICTED HIGH STRESS
THAT SYNCHRONISE OUT EPS TO THE OUTSIDE AND REQUIRE EZS TO KEEP A 24 HOUR CYCLE. ONTO THE ANIMALS IN HIS STUDY. DURING SCN
WORLD E.G. ALARMS. SABOTAGE, OTHER PARTS OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS
ASCHOFF ­ PLACED PPTS IN AN UNDERGROUND WERE DAMAGED. WE CANNOT ISOLATE THE REASON
THE BRAIN SYSTEM THAT FUNCTIONS AS AN EP FOR BUNKER, WITH THEIR OWN EZS. THEIR SLEEP/WAKE FOR THE LACK OF CIRCADIAN CYCLE TO EITHER THE
THE CIRCADIAN RHYTHM IS THE SUPRACHIASMATIC CYCLE WAS ALSO ERRATIC BUT SETTLED TO 25 ­ 27 DAMAGED SCN OR HYPOTHALAMUS
NUCLEUS (SCN). THIS IS PRESENT IN MAMMALS, HOURS.
WHERE LIGHT IS DETECTED BY THE RETINA, WHICH CASE STUDY ­ SIFFRE. CANNOT APPLY FINDINGS TO
SENDS A MESSAGE TO THE SCN, WHICH IN TURN ABRAHAM ­ INJECTED SPARROWS WITH MELATONIN. GENERAL POPULATION. ASCHOFF OFFERS SUPPORT,
SENDS A MESSAGE TO THE PINEAL GLAND, TO THEY FELL ASLEEP. MELATONIN CENTRAL IN SLEEP BUT IS STILL A MINORITY
CONVERT MELATONIN INTO SEROTONIN, WHICH WILL
ROUSE WAKEFULNESS. VICE VERSA IN THE ABSENCE ZUCKER ­ CUT THE OPTIC NERVE IN HAMSTERS AND
OF LIGHT. RATS, REMOVING EZ. THE SLEEP/WAKE CYCLE WAS
MAINTAINED. SABOTAGED THE SCN, A CYCLE COULD
IN BIRDS AND REPTILES, THERE IS NO SCN, BUT NOT BE KEPT. WE NEED OUR EPS TO MAINTAIN
INSTEAD LIGHT IS DETECTED DIRECTLY BY THE CYCLES.
PINEAL GLAND THROUGH A THIN LAYER OF SKIN IN
BRAIN, CONVERTING MELATONIN INTO SEROTONIN.…read more

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DISRUPTION OF BIORHYTHMS ­ JET LAG
AO1 AO2 AO3
IN MODERN SOCIETIES, OUR BIO RHYTHMS RECHT ­ LOOKED AT A US BASEBALL TEAM RECHT ­ DID NOT ACCOUNT FOR INSTANCES
ARE EXPOSED TO RAPID EZ CHANGES, FOR THREE YEARS. FOUND THEY WON 37% OF INJURY IMPACTING PERFORMANCE. IT
THROUGH THE ABILITY TO TRAVEL THROUGH OF THEIR GAMES UNDER PHASE ADVANCE MAY BE THAT INJURY IMPACTED
TIME ZONES AT RAPID PACE, AND 44% UNDER DELAY. SUGGESTS JET LAG PERFORMANCE MORE, THAN BEING UNDER
DESYNCHRONISING OUR EPS FROM LOCAL IMPACTS PERFORMANCE, WITH ADVANCE THE CONDITIONS OF PHASE ADVANCE.
EZS HAVING THE GREATEST ILL-EFFECTS POORLY CONTROLLED VARIABLES
JET LAG EXISTS AS PHASE DELAY AND PHASE WATERHOUSE ­ FOUND DISRUPTED SLEEP TAKAHASHI ­ SUGGESTS TAKING MELATONIN
ADVANCE. DELAY IS EXPERIENCED WHEN AND HORMONE CYCLES REDUCED THE SUPPLEMENTS CAN REDUCE THE EFFECTS
TRAVELLING EAST TO WEST AND OUR EPS COGNITIVE PROCESSES IN CABIN CREW. OF JET LAG, AS MELATONIN IS CRUCIAL IN
BECOME AHEAD OF LOCAL TIME. ADVANCE IS MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS ALSO BECAME THE SCN-PINEAL SYSTEM AND THE CONTROL
WEST TO EAST AND OUR EPS ARE BEHIND APPARENT, WITH SOME REPORTING BRIEF OF SLEEP.
LOCAL TIME, WHICH IS HARDER TO PSYCHOSIS. A PERMANENT STATE OF JET
RESYNCHRONISE. LAG IS DETRIMENTAL TO HEALTH AND OUR EXPOSURE TO LIGHT ­ BRIGHT LIGHT CAN
MAINTENANCE OF BIO RHYTHMS RESYNCHRONISE OUR EPS AND CIRCADIAN
RHYTHM IF USED AT APPROPRIATE POINTS
WHEN LOCAL EZS ENCOURAGE
WAKEFULNESS.…read more

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DISRUPTION OF BIORHYTHMS ­ SHIFT WORK
AO1 AO2 AO3
SHIFT WORK DISRUPTS OUR BIO RHYTHMS, CZEISLER ­ SUGGESTED THAT A COMPANY REAL LIFE RELEVANCE? ­ THOUSANDS OF
AS THEY OFTEN REQUIRE ACTIVITY WHEN ADOPT A PHASE DELAY APPROACH TO PEOPLE COMPLETE SHIFT WORK, WITH
THE BODY WOULD BE ASLEEP CHANGING SHIFTS, AND CHANGE ROTATION LITTLE OR NO EFFECT ON THEIR COGNITIVE
FROM 7 TO 21 DAYS, TO ALLOW THE ABILITIES. OUR BIO RHYTHMS WILL ADAPT, AS
THE REGULAR SHIFT PATTERN IS SPILT AS WORKERS TO SYNCHRONISE THEIR EPS. WE ADAPT TO SURVIVE.
12AM ­ 8AM, 8AM ­ 4PM AND 4PM ­ 12AM RESULTED IN REDUCED WORKER STRESS
AND ILLNESS AND INCREASED FIELD STUDIES ­ BOTH CZEISLER AND
THOSE WORKING HOURS OVERNIGHT, HAVE PRODUCTIVITY. KNUTTSON COMPLETED FIELD STUDIES,
TO ATTEMPT TO SLEEP DURING THE DAY. WHERE CONFOUNDING VARIABLES WERE
DAYTIME SLEEP IS MORE LIKELY TO BE KNUTTSON ­ FOUND THOSE WHO WORK NOT CONTROLLED. VARIABLES SUCH AS
DISTURBED BY LIGHT AND NOISE. NIGHT SHIFTS FOR 15 YEARS WERE 3X MORE PERSONALITY OR LIFESTYLE COULD
LIKELY TO DEVELOP CARDIOVASCULAR CONTRIBUTE, E.G. TO AN INCREASE IN
THE RESULTING EFFECTS MAY BE OF SLEEP PROBLEMS. CARDIOVASCULAR ISSUES, RATHER THAN
DEPRIVATION SHIFT WORK.…read more

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NATURE OF SLEEP
STAGES LIFESPAN
THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF SLEEP, COMPROMISING OF NREM (NON ­ RAPID BABIES SLEEP FOR 17 HOURS A DAY, 50-60% OF WHICH IS
EYE MOVEMENT) AND REM (RAPID EYE MOVEMENT). SPENT IN REM. THEIR BRAIN IS DEVELOPING AT MOST IN
LIFE
SLEEP FOLLOWS FOUR STAGES;
STAGE 1 ­ ALPHA STATE ­ DROPPING OFF TEENAGERS SLEEP FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME AS IT IS
STAGE 2 ­ THETA STATE ­ LIGHT SLEEP, EXPERIENCE SLEEP SPINDLES ANOTHER PHASE OF DEVELOPMENT. HOWEVER, THE SLEEP
(SHORT BURSTS OF HIGH FREQUENCY SPIKES OF BRAIN ACTIVITY) AND K NEEDED IS OFTEN INTERRUPTED BY SOCIAL AND
COMPLEX (BODY RESPONDING TO EXTERNAL STIMULI) ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS SUCH AS SOCIAL LIFE, LESS
STAGE 3 ­ DELTA WAVES ­ DEEP SLEEP, SLOW HEART RATE, TEMPERATURE PARENTAL INFLUENCE ETC.
AND RESPIRATION FALL
STAGE 4 ­ DELTA WAVES ­ DEEPEST SLEEP. HEART, TEMPERATURE AND AS WE AGE THE AMOUNT WE SLEEP DECREASES, AS DOES
RESPIRATION ARE AT THEIR LOWEST. SLEEP WALKING OUR TIME IN REM. YOUNG ADULTS SPEND 20% SLEEP IN
REM ­ BRAIN ACTIVITY IS DESYNCHRONISED. BRAIN IS MOST ACTIVE. BODY REM, ELDERLY SPEND 10%, WITH LESS TIME IN DEEP SLEEP.
IS PARALYSED. DREAMING OCCURS.
BY 90, WE NO LONGER EXPERIENCE STAGES 3 AND 4.
SLEEP IS MONITORED BY THREE THINGS;
EOG ­ EYE MOVEMENT. EEG ­ BRAIN ACTIVITY. EMG ­ MUSCLE MOVEMENT.
WE MOVE THROUGH THE STAGES OF SLEEP APPROXIMATELY FOUR TIMES A
NIGHT. E.G. 1,2,3,4,2,3,REM,4,2,3,REM,2,4,3 ETC.…read more

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