Sleep Disorders

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  • Created on: 09-06-13 14:36
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INSOMNIA
4+16 marks
SYMPTOMS
Waking in the night (most common in older people)
Not feeling refreshed after sleep
Not being able to function normally in the day
Irritable and tired, difficult to concentrate
Diagnosis of insomnia is not based on the number of hours slept but when the
resulting daytime fatigue causes severe distress of impairs work, social or personal
functioning for more than one month.
There are 2 types of insomnia:
Primary insomnia occurs on its own, for at
least 1 month with no known cause.
Secondary insomnia occurs when there is
a single medical, psychological or
environmental underlying cause.
Insomnia is the only problem which the individual Insomnia may occur due to depression or shift
suffers from. This can start in childhood and last a work. Environmental examples include coffee or
life time. It may also run in families however it is rare. tea.
POSITIVES NEGATIVES
Supports BC and Genetics. William Dement (one of the world's
Smith et al (2002) investigated 9 females leading sleep researchers) said that it is
(5 with insomnia, 4 controls) nearly impossible to make generalisations.
They were studied polysomnographically for Dement also stated that insomnia is not a
3 nights with whole brain scans conducted sleep disorder but a symptom of other
on the third night. disorders doctors should search for the
cause of this symptom.

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He found clear abnormalities in Insomnia is difficult to identify in the
insomniacs, including a consistent and first place, let alone find its cause for each
significant decrease in blood flow. individual patient.
This suggests that insomnia may be Lab recording provide little relevant
associated with abnormal central information for confirming or excluding
nervous activity during NREM sleep. the presence of insomnia.
THE GENETIC EXPLANATION
This suggests that the disorder is cause by some malfunction in the sleep control centre. E.…read more

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Many cases of insomnia occur due to another condition (secondary insomnia). For example, physical
changes: hormonal changes in women, these include PMS, menstruation, pregnancy and menopause.
Mornin et al (1999) found that 40% of patients with insomnia also had a psychological disorder e.g
depression, posttraumatic stress disorder. Other medical conditions such as Parkinsons and Asthma can
cause insomnia. Treatments for these can also cause insomnia (steroid therapy for Asthma).…read more

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DIATHESIS STRESS MODEL
This suggests that suffers have a genetic disposition to developing the disorder which is
then triggered by something in the environment. This explanation also brings up the nature
nurture debate. This questions whether it is the genetics which you are born with, or
whether the environment and outside factors which cause. Influence the onset of
sleepwalking.
Lecendreux (2003) who found a 50% concordance rate in MZ twins compared supports
the Diathesis Stress Model.…read more

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It is clear that there is a genetic component to narcolepsy. In dogs, it is clear that one gene can pass on
the trait, whereas in humans it does not, as in humans if one twin has narcolepsy there is only a 30%
chance of the other twin developing it.
Also drugs have proved useful in the treatment of narcolepsy which has been thought to activating
hypocretincontainign nerve cells. The success of this drug supports the hypocretin deficiency explanation
for narcolepsy.…read more

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