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Sleep Disorders
It is estimated that 2530% of the UK population will suffer from a sleep
disorder at some point in their lives.
Sleep difficulties are particularly common in women, children and those
over 65.
Sleep disorders can significantly affect an individual's quality of lifetime by
leading to daytime tiredness…

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Psychopathological insomnia is a form of behavioural insomnia usually
associated with excessive worrying. It is a form of primary insomnia as it is
not associated with any other mental/physical disorder.
The reason for psychopathological insomnia is stress related to not
sleeping, which in turn results in poor sleep and generates…

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Psychiatric conditions: secondary insomnia is associated with depression,
anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder etc. Treatment involving drugs
and psychotherapy can help to improve a person's sleep.
The use of stimulants: e.g. caffeine in coffee. It can trigger awakenings during
the night. Nicotine smokers take longer to get to sleep.…

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make generalisations that will describe all cases of insomnia in a meaningful
way' Dement 1999.
Dement believes that insomnia is not a sleep disorder at all! More a
symptom that occurs as a result of other disorders and treatment should
focus on the causes.

Factors that affect insomnia


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pulse oximetry ­ heart rate and blood oxygen level monitoring
electrocardiography (ECG) ­ heart monitoring
sound and video recording

Causes of sleep apnoea make the throat narrow more than usual during
sleep. These factors are:
enlarged adenoids or tonsils
setback lower jaw
partially blocked nose e.g. caused by rhinitis or…

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anxious personalities are more likely to suffer from insomnia. This is
supported by the effectiveness of therapies such as muscle relaxation and
CBT which aim to reduce arousal and anxiety levels and thus combat
insomnia. It is also supported by twin studies showing that high levels sleep
disturbance were associated…

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This explained some of the symptoms of the disorder, such as the loss of
muscle tone (found in REM sleep) and the hallucinations (seen as REMtype
sleep and dreams intruding into the day).
However, this is reductionist as it ignores other biological variables as well
as environmental ones. Studies…

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Sleepwalking affects approximately 117% of children and is more frequent
in boys. The incidence of sleepwalking decreases with age. Sleepwalking
usually occurs during deep, nonREM sleep early in the night. If it occurs
during REM sleep, it is defined as a REM behaviour disorder & tends to
happen near morning.…

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episodes. This shows that sleep deprivation had increased the amount of

Some of the conditions that can cause sleepwalking are fever, arrhythmia,
asthma during the nighttime, seizures during the nighttime and sleep
apnoea. It can also be caused by some psychiatric disorders like multiple
personality disorder, panic attack and…


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