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Shapes of molecules and ions
Electron-pair repulsion theory
- Covalent bonds are directional and have a definite length
- Electron pairs in the outer shell of atoms and ions repel each other and get as far away as possible

Steric number Shape Bond angle With lone pair Two lone pairs…

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Graphite
- Giant covalent structure
- High melting point so used to line walls in furnaces and to
make crucibles for molten metals
- Each atom is bonded to 3 others, and the last outer shell
electron becomes delocalised
- Conducts electricity so used for electrodes and as the
positive…

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