Shapes of Molecules

Summary of shapes of molecules

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Valence shell electron pairs Bonding pairs Lone pairs shape Bond Angle (o) Examples
2 2 0 LINEAR 180 BeCl2
3 3 0 TRIGONAL PLANAR 120 AlCl2
NO3
3 2 1 BENT 115 118 SO2
SnCl2
CO2
NO2
4 4 0 TETRAHEDRAL 109.5 CH4
4 3 1 TRIGONAL PYRAMIDAL 107 NH3
4 2 2 BENT 104.5 H2O
5 5 0 TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL 90 and 120 PF5

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SEE SAW 119 and 89 SF4
BrF4
5 3 2 TRIGONAL PLANAR OR TSHAPE 120 or 89 BCl3
BF3
Cl3
BrF3
6 6 0 OCTAHEDRAL 90 PF4
BrF4
6 5 1 DISTORTED SQUARE PYRAMID 89 BrF5
ClF5
6 4 2 SQUARE PLANAR 90
Electron pair repulsion theory
"THE SHAPE ADOPTED BY A SIMPLE MOLECULE OR ION IS THAT WHICH KEEPS REPULSIVE FORCES TO A MINIMUM"
Molecules contain covalent bonds. As covalent bonds consist of a pair of electrons, each bond will repel other bonds.…read more

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Bonds will therefore push each other as far apart as possible to reduce the repulsive forces because the repulsions are equal, the bonds will also be
equally spaced.
Working out the shapes of molecules:
Valence electrons (how many there is the outer shell) from the central atom add the amount of electrons from the other atom. / 2. This gives electrons pairs.
Remember to add or attract to account for the ions. Then work out number of bonding pairs and the number of lone.…read more

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