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Key Information
· Sex identity the biological aspect of the individual e.g. hormones
and chromosomes. This determines whether a child's sex is male or
female
· Gender identity the psychological aspect of a child's attitudes and
behaviour
Male Female
Chromosomes XY XX
Hormones Testosterones Oestrogen
-produced in the adrenal -produced in the ovaries
glands and testes…read more

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Psychodynamic Theory
· Freud believed our early experiences and our unconscious mind help
us develop a sense of being male or female
· It is in the phallic stage (3-5 years) that we develop our sense of
gender
Males (Oedipus) Females (Electra)
1. Boy develops an unconscious desire for his 1. Girl develops an unconscious desire for her
mother father
2. He is jealous of his father and fears his father 2. She is jealous of her mother and worries she
will find out and castrate him will find out.
3. He gives up his feelings for his mother and 3. She believes she has already been castrated
identifies with his father and experiences penis envy
4. He starts to behave like his father and adopts 4. To do with all of this, she identifies with her
masculine gender roles mother…read more

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Freud's Case Study- Little Hans
· Little Hans's father wrote to Freud about his phobia of horses. He was
particularly scared of large white horses with black around the mouth and
feared that a horse might bite him, come into his room or the horse would
collapse and fall over
· Freud believed Little Hans was going through the Oedipus Complex- he
unconsciously desired his mother and feared his father and so displaced
this fear onto horses
· He claimed the white horse with the black mouth represented his father
(who has a beard). His fear of being bitten represented his fear of castration
and his fear of horses falling down represented his unconscious desire to
see his father dead…read more

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Freud also believed...
· If a child was brought up in a lone-parent household, he/she will
have a poorly developed gender identity because they will not have
the opportunity to resolve the Oedipus/Electra complex
· Boys raised without a father would not develop a masculine gender
identity because he has not had a father to identify with during the
phallic stage. He said that such a boy would be homosexual…read more

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Evaluation
· It is impossible to test Freud's ideas because they're all based on
unconscious thoughts and feelings
· Freud says children do not develop a gender identity until 4-5 years,
however studies show that children can identify their gender from around
2 years
· There is no evidence to show children brought up in lone-parent families
will become homosexual
· There is very little supporting evidence for this theory and the Little Hans
case study findings cannot be generalised to other people/children…read more

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