Separating Solutions

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Separating Solutions
Immiscible Liquids
These are liquids that do not mix but separate into layers (oil and water do this)
1. Get a separating funnel and put the mixture in
2. Open the tap to let the bottom layer pour out
3. Close the tap when the top layer enters it
4. Change beaker and do the same process for the top layer
Fractional Distillation
Miscible liquids are ones that completely mix like ethanol and water. You separate these
with fractional distillation.
1. Each liquid in the mix has a different boiling point
2. Temperature in the flask rises until the boiling point of liquid one is reached
3. Liquid one turns to gas and moves to the condenser, where it is cooled and turned to
a liquid on the walls of the condenser
4. Container is changed when no more liquid is collected
5. Temperature in the flask rises again until it reaches the boiling point of the next
Oxygen and nitrogen gas are produced by fractional distillation of air:
1. Dust, water vapor and carbon dioxide removed from air
2. Air is cooled to 200c and all gases become liquids
3. Temperature rises gradually and when it gets to 196c nitrogen vaporizes and is
collected as a gas
4. Remaining liquid is mostly oxygen
This is used to separate and identify components in substances like colours in food
1. Draw a pencil line 2cm up from the bottom of a sheet of chromatography paper
2. Put spots of mixture of colours on the line
3. Put paper in a container with solvent and a lid. Solvent cannot be covering the spots.
4. Wait for the solvent to rise up the paper, then remove the paper and let it dry
Different colours move different distances.
To identify what was in a mixture, compare it with known substances
R = distance travelled by component / distance travelled by solvent


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