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Study Alternative Sample* Different Method / Design* Different ways of More Ethical* General
Milgram 40 males Method Controlled Observation D.V - maximum voltage the Protection of participants - the Mundane realism the
aged 20 50 Design Independent measures subject will go to before participants displayed extent to which the task
The aim of the New Haven Area - Carry out a lab experiment. To walking out symptoms similar to that of a was a normal every day
experiment was to Volunteer (advert) create a lab experiment for this -Alternative to shock nervous breakdown. activity.
investigate what level - Use an alternate sampling study you could make two generator - Two-step screening process; - Change the task. To
of obedience would method e.g. Opportunity. experimental conditions; Original for potential participants to increase the Mundane
be shown when The original sample was self (use the same set up as Milgram) exclude any individuals who realism of the experiment
participants were told selected through p's and No Authority (replace the might have a negative reaction you could change the
by an authority figure responding to an advert; authority figure with a person who to the experience (initial phone location of the study to be
to administer electric meaning that they may all is blind to the hypothesis, dressed interview, interview in person by carried out in a work
shocks to another have the same personality in casual clothes but carries out the a licensed clinical psychologist.) place. The participants
person. type (extrovert). This makes same role). You could use an - Trained authority figure. could be the employees of
the sample LESS Independent Measures design and Authority figure should be that workplace and the
representative. have 50 participants in each clinical psychologist who can task carried out could be
- Include women in the experimental group, experiencing end the session immediately if an unpleasant but not
sample. The absence of only one of the experimental any signs of excessive stress are unusual task for that
women from the sample conditions. The D.V would remain shown participant. The authority
restricts generalisations that the same, as would the location. - Debriefing. Allow virtually no figure could be an `acting'
can be made from the time to elapse between ending manager.
findings. the session and informing
participants that the learner had
received no shocks.
Piliavin Approx. 4450 men and Method Field Experiment using Data on reactions and Consent as this study was a Travellers on the trains
women travelling on a participant observation actions of the general Field Experiment, participants saw more than one trial.
The aim was to particular stretch of the New Design Independent measures public when a person did not know they were taking Conducting the
investigate factors York underground system - Carry out a controlled collapses. part. experiments in multiple
affecting helping between 11 a.m. and 3 p.m. observation. E.g. assemble a - Hand out anonymous - Put up posters. Around the locations. Use 10
behaviour on weekdays during the group of about 50 participants questionnaires to stations and in carriages, different cities and
period of April 15th to June using an alternative motive participants in a public place informing the public that conduct one experiment in
26th 1968 (Opportunity) (community conference) in a small which include scenarios experiments will be taking place, each. This will lower the
- Use multiple forms of space (village hall) then assign a where participants have to highlight the day, time and probability that any
public transport e.g. bust, confederate to act as a victim and describe, how they may act locations but withholding the participant will see the
ferry. Will make the results collapse. Use two covert observers in such situations. nature of the experiment. Will experiment twice.