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Savage-Rumbaugh et al. (animal language) Loftus and Palmer (eyewitness testimony)
1. Aim
1. Aim
2. Research method ­ type and adv., disadv.
2. Research method ­ type and adv., disadv.
3. Sample ­ method and adv., disadv.
3. Sample ­ method and adv., disadv.
4. 4 Findings/results
4. 4 Findings/results
5. Conclusions
5. Conclusions
6. 4 Changes
6. 4 Changes
7. 4 implication
7. 4 implication
Baron-Cohen et al. (autism) Freud (Little Hans)
1. Aim 1. Aim
2. Research method ­ type and adv., disadv. 2. Research method ­ type and adv., disadv.
3. Sample ­ method and adv., disadv. 3. Sample ­ method and adv., disadv.
4. 4 Findings/results 4. 4 Findings/results
5. Conclusions 5. Conclusions
6. 4 Changes 6. 4 Changes
7. 4 implication 7. 4 implication…read more

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Loftus and Palmer (eyewitness testimony) Savage-Rumbaugh et al. (animal language)
· To study spontaneous language acquisition in pygmy chimps
· Study effects of leading questions upon memory compared to that of normal chimps
· Lab experiment: more control but, locks eco. Validity · Quasi experimental and longitudinal study: rich qualitative data but,
· 45 & 150 students: very large but nor representative hard to replicate
· Smashed40.8, collided39.3, bumped38.1, hit34.0, cotacted31.8 and · Kanzi and Mulika compared to Sherman and Austin: very small
· Yes ­ 16, 7, 6 No ­ 34, 43, 44 · k from the spontaneously use lexigrams and was correct most of
· Conclusion: Stage 1 ­ persons own subjective perception at the the time; k could differentiate between item e.g. coke and water; K
time of the event Stage 2 ­ information reserved after event via could make request for others; K&M were able to comprehend
leading questions or other's opinions English speaking words
· Use not only student; observe staged but real accidents; provide · Conclusion: Spontaneous language acquisition is real and may mean
counselling for distressed ppt's; repeat the same study 2 weeks that we can teach those who haven't learnt language correctly,
later other ways.
· More representative; more eco. valid; more ethical; reliable · Use more chimps from both types; don't humanize chimps; control
age; both K&A should use the same equipment
· representativeness of the sample; ethical; more control; not bias
Freud (Little Hans) Baron-Cohen et al. (autism)
· To investigate his theory on the Oedipus complex in boys
· To investigate if adults with autism will be impaired on theory of
· Case study: rich qualitative data but, hard to replicate
mind tests
· Little Hans who is 5yrs
· Quasi-experiment: has eco. validity but, no control over IV
· Interest in his widdler - evidence for phallic stage of development
· Autistc16(13M;3F) Torrettes10(8M;2F) Normal50(25M;25F):
· Desire to get into bed with mother - evidence for Oedipus complex
ethnocentric and small sample
· Fear of white horses - symbolic of fear for his father as blinkers
· Autistic16.3 `Normal'20.3 Tourette's20.4
were like his fathers glasses and dark patch around mouth was like
· Males 18.3 Females 20.3
his father's moustache and evidence for castration anxiety
· Conclusion: Adults with autism had poorer performance on an
· Fantasy about a plumber giving him a bigger widdler and bigger
advanced on Advance Theory of mind test
behind - wanting to be like his father resolution of Oedipus complex
· whole face; same number of ppt's in group; open end question in
· Conclusion: Hans was experiencing the Oedipus complex and
eye task; natural experiment
provides support for psychosexual stages of development; Hans
· More eco. Validity; easier to generalise; less likely for order effects;
behaviour is normal of every child
more eco valid and ethical
· Lager sample; 1-1 meeting with Hans; consent from Hans and check
he wants to continue; used another observer
· More representative; first hand info. more ethical; not one sided
and reliable…read more

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Samuel and Bryant (conservation) Bandura, Ross and Ross (aggression
1. Aim
2. Research method ­ type and adv., disadv. 1. Aim
3. Sample ­ method and adv., disadv. 2. Research method ­ type and adv., disadv.
4. 4 Findings/results 3. Sample ­ method and adv., disadv.
5. Conclusions 4. 4 Findings/results
6. 4 Changes 5. Conclusions
7. 4 implication 6. 4 Changes
7. 4 implication
Rosenhan (sane in insane places) Thigpen and Cleckley (Multiple Personality Disorder)
1. Aim 1. Aim
2. Research method ­ type and adv., disadv. 2. Research method ­ type and adv., disadv.
3. Sample ­ method and adv., disadv. 3. Sample ­ method and adv., disadv.
4. 4 Findings/results 4. 4 Findings/results
5. 4 Changes 5. Conclusions
6. 4 implication 6. 4 Changes
7. 4 implication…read more

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Bandura, Ross and Ross (aggression) Samuel and Bryant (conservation)
· See if children learn behaviour from the behaviour they see around · Can young children conserve or does asking the same question
them and if aggression be learned by imitated observation twice (Piagetian method) cause them to fail
· Lab experiment: high control but locks eco. validity · Lab experiment: high control but locks eco. validity
· 72 children in this study (36 boys, 36 girls) average age 4 ½ split · 252 aged 5 to 8.5 years; There were four groups of 63: very large
into three condition (aggressive, non-aggressive an control) 24 each sample but,
: very large sample · 5yrs8,7,9 6yrs6,4,6 7yrs3,3,5 8yrs2,1,3 significant difference
· Imitated behaviour for the N-A group was very low: 70% had zero between the age groups; the one judgement task significantly easier
scores; aggressive have vast amount more non-imitative aggressive; · Conclusion: As children learn more about their world they will
Boys imitated more physical aggression; Boys were more aggressive adopt new strategies with which to process information.
after watching male aggressive model; Girls more aggressive after · Different background; children give an account; use someone their
watching female aggressive model own age as a researcher; use a one-way-mirror to observe
· Conclusion: Children are often reinforced for copying behaviour of · Not ethnocentric; qualitative data; don't feel the must continue; no
same-sex parent, by parents; Learning can take place by Hawthorne effect
observation
· Lager sample; consent; different aged children; play in group
· Representative; ethical; representative (different age play with toys
differently) to compare and see difference
Thigpen and Cleckley (Multiple Personality Disorder) Rosenhan (sane in insane places)
· To record symptoms and treat of multiple personality disorder and
have a case study of therapeutic processes · to test the reliability of psychiatrists being able to diagnose the
· Case study: rich qualitative data but, hard to replicate insane from the sane.
· Eve white caring and a loving mother (Eve black childish, party · Field experiment: natural setting eco. valid but no control over
animal denied child & husband and Jane, mature also caring) extraneous variables
· EW husband reported she had bought clothes, she said she was · Eight sane people and 12 hospitals in 5 different states of the USA
hearing voices later EB arrive headaches stop but came back after 8 · 1st Experiment: normal behaviour was misinterpreted (line up for
months - Jane lunch). 35/118 of 'real patients' noticed that the pseudo patients
· IQ tests - EW 110, EB 104 (both above average intelligence); were normal/sane.
Memory - EW above expectations, EB in line with expectations · 2nd Experiment: the staff detected 41 pseudo patients, when no
Inkblot test - EW showed anxiety (emotionally repressed) EB was pseudo patients were actually sent in. Experiment 1 gives Type 2
egocentric, showing regression; EEGS - EW/JANE 11 cycles, EB 12.5 error, labelling a sane person insane. Whereas experiment 2 gives
(borderline psychotic) Type 1 error, labelling an insane person sane
· Lager sample; two observers; consent before killing personalities; · Random sample not Rosenhan friends; non participant observation;
keep EW at a facility to monitor her progress larger sample; do a repeat study in the UK;
· Representative; inter-rater reliability; ethical; shows progress · Not bias and subjective; objective; more representative; reliable
overtime also not extraneous effects and not ethnocentric.…read more

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Griffiths (gambling) Maguire et al. (brain scans)
1. Aim 1. Aim
2. Research method ­ type and adv., disadv. 2. Research method ­ type and adv., disadv.
3. Sample ­ method and adv., disadv. 3. Sample ­ method and adv., disadv.
4. 4 Findings/results 4. 4 Findings/results
5. Conclusions 5. Conclusions
6. 4 Changes 6. 4 Changes
7. 4 implication 7. 4 implication
Dement and Kleitman (sleep and dreaming) Sperry (split brain)
1. Aim 1. Aim
2. Research method ­ type and adv., disadv. 2. Research method ­ type and adv., disadv.
3. Sample ­ method and adv., disadv. 3. Sample ­ method and adv., disadv.
4. 4 Findings/results 4. 4 Findings/results
5. Conclusions 5. Conclusions
6. 4 Changes 6. 4 Changes
7. 4 implication 7. 4 implication…read more

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