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Slide 1

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Section B : Language & Gender…read more

Slide 2

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· Pamela Fishman
· Jennifer Coates
· Robin Lakoff
· O'barr & Atkins
· Zimmerman & West
· Deborah Tannen
· Deborah Jones
· Brown & Levinson
· Kramer & Kramer
· Siegler & Siegler
· Goodwin…read more

Slide 3

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Pamela Fishman (1978)
· Women asked 263 questions at home, whereas men
only asked 107.
· Men used statements twice as much as women did
and women nearly always responded
· Women use short responses to show interest and
attention, whereas men use it to show lack of
· Out of 75 topics introduced, 45 were from women
and 30 were from men.
· Out of the 45 introduced topics by women, only 17
led to developed conversations, all 30 of men's
conversations were fully developed.…read more

Slide 4

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Jennifer Coates (2003)
· Men either do not speak much, or they speak excessively about things
like football, cars and drinking
· Shared characteristics of male and female narratives are that they
both: bring characters to life with direct speech and they both
communicate to the point
· In all-male conversations, 96% of stories involve a male protagonist,
with 72% including no females at all.
· Boasting and swearing is common in male conversations
· When women are introduced in male conversations, they are often
referred to sexually.
· In female conversations, 53% of stories are set in the household,
· The majority of these stories are set in the first person.
· Women tend to tell more stories than men.
· 54% of stories are also set in the past.…read more

Slide 5

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Robin Lakoff ­ Assumptions* (1975)
· She thought women lack assertiveness and
therefore are less powerful.
· She thought women used the following things:
1. Hedges
2. Polite forms
3. Emphasis
4. Empty adjectives
5. Correct grammar and pronunciation
6. Direct quotation
7. Speak less frequently
8. More intensifiers
9. Women lack a sense of humour…read more

Slide 6

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O'barr & Atkins (1980
· They studied language variation in a specific
institutional context
· They found that lack of power derived from job
status, rather than gender. For example, a doctor
would be more powerful and use more powerful
language than a binman.
· They found that the women who used the fewest
`women traits' had very good jobs
· Finally, they siad that nervousness could also have
added to powerless people's use of `women features'…read more

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Love how you broke down the notes! 



Thankyou SOOOO much !

Paul Dutton


This resource is packed with useful information, good examples with clear presentation. Recommended.

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