Slides in this set
Pamela Fishman (1978)
· Women asked 263 questions at home, whereas men
only asked 107.
· Men used statements twice as much as women did
and women nearly always responded
· Women use short responses to show interest and
attention, whereas men use it to show lack of
· Out of 75 topics introduced, 45 were from women
and 30 were from men.
· Out of the 45 introduced topics by women, only 17
led to developed conversations, all 30 of men's
conversations were fully developed.…read more
Jennifer Coates (2003)
· Men either do not speak much, or they speak excessively about things
like football, cars and drinking
· Shared characteristics of male and female narratives are that they
both: bring characters to life with direct speech and they both
communicate to the point
· In all-male conversations, 96% of stories involve a male protagonist,
with 72% including no females at all.
· Boasting and swearing is common in male conversations
· When women are introduced in male conversations, they are often
referred to sexually.
· In female conversations, 53% of stories are set in the household,
· The majority of these stories are set in the first person.
· Women tend to tell more stories than men.
· 54% of stories are also set in the past.…read more
Robin Lakoff Assumptions* (1975)
· She thought women lack assertiveness and
therefore are less powerful.
· She thought women used the following things:
2. Polite forms
4. Empty adjectives
5. Correct grammar and pronunciation
6. Direct quotation
7. Speak less frequently
8. More intensifiers
9. Women lack a sense of humour…read more
O'barr & Atkins (1980
· They studied language variation in a specific
· They found that lack of power derived from job
status, rather than gender. For example, a doctor
would be more powerful and use more powerful
language than a binman.
· They found that the women who used the fewest
`women traits' had very good jobs
· Finally, they siad that nervousness could also have
added to powerless people's use of `women features'…read more