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Section 5: Three Cold War crises; Berlin, Cuba and
Czechoslovakia 1957-1969

The Berlin Crisis: A divided city

After the Second World War the USSR and America had be unable to
decide how Germany should be governed. Consequentially the USSR refused
to recognise West Germany and America refused to acknowledge East…

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Kennedy Prepares for War

Kennedy refused to back down to the ultimatum and said he would not
remove American troops from Berlin. He started to prepare the American
people for war building nuclear shelters and spent $3.2 billion on defence.

The Berlin Crisis: the Berlin Wall

Khrushchev knew that the…

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Cuba had traditionally been an ally of America, and Cuba's friendship was
important to them because it was only 145kilometers away and part of the
American sphere of influence.

However a revolution in 1959 by communist Fidel Castro overthrew the
pro-American government. In response America banned the import of Cuban…

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Khrushchev's Plan

In 1962 Khrushchev sent 114 soviet ships carrying secret cargo of missiles
to Cuba. American spy planes discovered what was going on, and Kennedy
again feared the possibility of nuclear war.

Hawks and Doves

During the crisis Kennedy's advisors were split in two, the Hawks wanted an

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opposition, and at the same time the Czechoslovakian economy was
struggling, and the standard of living was decreasing. This made the
Communist leader highly unpopular, and as a result friend of USSR leader
Brezhnev, Alexander Dubcek was made leader.

Alexander Dubcek

Dubcek wanted to create a genuinely popular form of…

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Western European Response

Many Western European governments also condemned the invasion but also
provided no military help. Communist parties in Italy and France were
outraged by the invasion and formally declared themselves independent of
the Soviet Communist Party. Showing the USSR was loosing its authority.

Eastern European Response

Yugoslavian and…


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