Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
Farrah Desai, Critical Thinking, Section 1




Elements of an argument
Conclusions:

A statement the writer wants accepted on the basis of her reasons

Reasons:

Aims to persuade the reader to accept a conclusion




Claims
A statement/judgement which can be challenged has no reasons to support it.

Can be turned in…

Page 2

Preview of page 2
Farrah Desai, Critical Thinking, Section 1




Counter Argument
&
Counter Assertion




Counter Argument or Counter assertion indicators

Although, despite this, however, it has been said/suggested, contrary to this, on the other
hand, some may argue.



Hypothetical Reasoning
A statement or judgement that can be challenged.

A fact
An opinion
A…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
Farrah Desai, Critical Thinking, Section 1




Simple hypothetical Reasoning
Looks at the consequences that might occur if something were the case.



Assumptions

A missing reason in an argument.
The writer accepts it without stating it
Essential for the conclusion to be drawn
Acts as the ..th unstated reason

Formulating assumptions…

Page 4

Preview of page 4
Farrah Desai, Critical Thinking, Section 1




Examples
Something which is used as evidence because it is characteristic of the same kind of things
or because it can serve to illustrate a principle. They provide good support for the
conclusion.

Numerical and statistical data as evidence
Surveys or research data

Methods…

Page 5

Preview of page 5
Farrah Desai, Critical Thinking, Section 1




Where was it conducted
Are examples typical and relevant
Are research finding clear-cut or ambiguous?
Is it from a reputable source, an expert, authoritative, without a motive to mislead?
Sometimes statistics can mislead without the motive to do so.



Analysing and evaluating reasoning


Analysing…

Page 6

Preview of page 6
Farrah Desai, Critical Thinking, Section 1




4. Identifying hypothetical reasoning and counter-argument in longer arguments

If the `if' is followed by a `then', hypothetical reasoning is present
Some argument indicators lead in to the writer's point of view. Some lead in
to a counter assertion or counter argument that is…

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Critical Thinking resources:

See all Critical Thinking resources »