Scotland and the end of Charles I personal rule

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Religious Changes in Scotland and the end of the Personal
Religious Changes in Scotland 1625 1640
Charles' Early Reign
Most Scots were Presbyterian. Scottish churches called the Kirk and for many scots their
church was their identity. James I restored Bishops to Scotland in 1618 through the articles
of Perth, but these bishops were only in an advisory capacity. For religious matters in
Scotland the General assembly were in charge
In 1626 Charles issued a proclamation commanding observation of the Articles of Perth and
he sent personal instructions for kneeling at communion. This was very repugnant to the
scots (Charles had no understanding of this)
IT was 8 years before Charles visited Scotland after his coronation and he only stayed for 2
weeks It was important to see a king regularly as he was a symbol of patronage and power.
It was important that Charles spent time everywhere (something Charles ignored). Scots
therefore felt neglected and bitterness spread towards England.
In 1625 without warning or explanation, Charles first act with regard to Scotland had been
to revoke all grants of land made by the crown since 1540. This included church and
monastic (land owned by the monastery) lands given to the nobility as a result of the
reformation. ­very tactless move by Charles as it affected all families of substance.
The cannons new prayer book
The religious aim in Scotland by Laud and Charles was to make Scottish worship conform
more closely to their idea of decency and reverence. The Scottish bishops drew up a Book of
Common Prayer and canons "For the unity and discipline" the canons laid down; east end
tables, kneeling, obedience to the prayer book and confession which caused much offence.
There was a lack of consultation with the clergy and the imposition of the canons through
Royal degree.
Before Charles introduced the prayer book he carefully consulted the bishops and made a
number of changes to render the book more acceptable to Scots for example the word
"Priests" was not to be used. But the Bishops in Scotland didn't really represent the scots
and the Scottish nobles at court.
The biggest mistake of the prayer book was its imposition. It was not shown to the Scottish
parliament or church assembly before it was introduced by royal proclamation, abandoning
all pretence of government consent.

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The congregations in Scotland reacted badly to the new prayer book. One bishop felt he had
to conduct services with two loaded pistols in each hand in the pulpit.
Charles brought matters to a head by issuing a proclamation making protests against the
new prayer book an act of treason ­ so the scots now had to choose between loyalty to the
King and loyalty to the Presbyterian Church.…read more

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The war
Nonevent really. Charles had 20,000 unexperienced men while Scotland had 12,000 trained
soldiers. They never met in Battle.
Treaty of Berwick June 1639
A Scottish parliament was to meet and both sides would demobilise
Recall of Wentworth
Wentworth was recalled to sort out Charles problems and became the Earl of Stratford, he
urged the king to call parliament .…read more

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Stratford (Wentworth) advised Charles "Go on with a vigorous war, loose and absolved from
all rules of government you have an army in Ireland you may employ it here to reduce this
kingdom" ­This was a Catholic army Stratford was suggesting.
Charles had confiscated (gold and silver coinage from English merchants) held in the tower
of London for safe keeping. Charles help on to the £30,000 as a "loan", this did nothing for
his already strained relationship with the city of London merchants.…read more

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The responsibility of the failures during the 11 years Tyranny
House of Commons failure to allocate adequate finance for Charles
Charles driving Arminianism as a way of trying to introduce Catholicism through the
back door (as seen by the country)
Fundamental difference
Divine right of kings VS Parliamentary privilege
The Biggest mistake was undoubtedly the decision to persist with the Scottish prayer book
after the ferocity of the opposition it received. Up to 1637 the decision to rule alone had
worked well for Charles.…read more


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