SCLY2 Sociologists/Theorists for Education

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Douglas: W/C parents less likely to support child's intellectual development (don't read)
Bernstein: Restricted Code + Elaborated Code
Douglas: W/C parents took less interest so kids have less achievement motivation
Hyman: W/C believe they have less opportunity for advancement/high status jobs so see no point
of education
Keddie: CultDep is a 'myth' and W/C children are simply culturally different not deprived, failing
b/c they are put a disadvantage by the education system (dominated by M/C values)
Blackstone and Mortimore: reject view that W/C parents aren't interested in their children's
education, arguing that they attend fewer parents' evenings because they work longer hours
Marilyn Howard: nutrition affects health, lowering concentration (more absences)
Wilkinson : the lower the social class, the higher rate of hyperactivity, anxiety and conduct
disorders, all of which are likely to have a negative effect on the child's education.
Bull: 'the costs of free schooling'
Tanner: the cost of items like uniform and transport puts a heavy burden on poor families
Flaherty: fear of stigma: 20% of people entitled to free school meals don't take them
A lack of funds means that children from low income families often need to work, helping us
explain why many W/C pupils leave school at 16.
However material factors only play a part in achievement as some children from poor families
have gone on to succeed.
Bourdieu: cultural, economic and educational capital
Leech + Campos : M/C parents can afford house near desirable school: 'selection by mortgage'
Sullivan used questionnaires to conduct a survey of 465 pupils in four schools to assess their
cultural capital - those who saw serious TV documentaries developed greater cultural knowledge
thus a higher cultural capital = more likely to be successful at GCSE
Gewirtz: Marketisation and Parental Choice (effects of cultural + economic capital) =
privileged-skilled choosers, disconnected-local choosers & semi-skilled choosers
Becker: 60 Chicago teachers interviewed + found teachers judged pupils according to how closely
they fitted the image of the 'ideal pupil'
Cicourel and Kitsuse's found counsellors assessed students on social class/race, not ability
Ray Rist's found that teachers used information e.g. home background to place them in groups
(tigers, clowns and cardinals)
Gilborn and Youdell found that W/C and black pupils more likely to be placed in lower sets,
denying them the knowledge and opportunity needed to gain good grades (widening gap)
Rosenthal and Jacobson's study shows how the SFP works. They told the school that they had a
new test specially designed to identify those pupils who would 'spurt' ahead. This was untrue
because the test was an IQ test. The researchers tested all the pupils and then picked 20% of
them randomly, and told the school that they were 'spurters'. When they returned a year later,
they found that almost half (47%) of those 'spurters' had made significant progress, especially
the younger children.
They suggested that the teachers had been influenced by the test and the teachers' beliefs
were conveyed to the pupils e.g. body language thus showing how the SFP works
Becker: teachers see W/C kids as lacking ability thus they're put in lower streams: SFP Lacey:
differentiation and polarisation (development of pupil subcultures)
Ball: when Beachside school abolished banding to teach mixed-ability groups, pupils couldn't
polarise into subcultures and the anti-school subculture declined (SFP still occurred though)
Woods: other responses to labelling and streaming other than pro/anti-school subcultures:
ingratiation, ritualism, retreatism, rebellion
Furlong observes that pupils move between different responses.
Fuller's study shows labelling doesn't always lead to a SFP: girls channelled their anger into the
pursuit of educational success.
Gilborn and Youdell: 'A-to-C economy' & the 'educational triage': (those who will pass anyway,
those with potential & hopeless cases)
Bartlett argues that marketisation leads to popular schools cream-skimming and silt-shifting.
Gewirtz: marketisation and selection have created a polarised education system
- a 'blurred
hierarchy' of schools.

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Webb white pupils= 4/5 of all pupils.
Moynihan : many black fams are female-headed & boys have no role model > underachievement
Lupton argues that Asian families are strict, authoritative + disciplined
But Khan found Asian families as 'stress ridden', bound by tradition especially for girls.
Driver criticises cult-dep theorists for not seeing positives of ethnicity e.g.…read more

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Wrong :functionalists have an 'over-socialised view' of people as mere puppets of society,
implying that pupils passively accept all they are taught and never reject the school's values.
Chubb and Moe : consumer choice ­ education should be opened up to market forces of supply and
Althusser : the state exercises power over the W/C in two ways: Repressive (physical control e.g.…read more


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