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Living organisms are first classified into kingdoms ­ animals, fungi, plants, prokaryote, and

Then they are broken down into smaller and smaller groups in this order ­ kingdom, phylum, class,
order, family, genus and species.

Animals are broken down into vertebrates (animals with backbones) and invertebrates (animals…

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There is lots of variation (differences) between members of the same species. These are caused by
two things: genes and the environment.

Genetic variation ­ characteristics inherited by your parent's genes (genes are codes on the
chromosome inside your cells that control aspects of what you will look like.…

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Organisms living deep in the sea have adapted to be able to survive in the dark cold waters -
Some are able to emit light (attracting prey) they often have huge mouths, huge eyes and
long feelers to locate prey
Organisms living in polar regions have also adapted - Polar…

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Inside every human body cell is a nucleus which controls the rest of the cell. Inside the nucleus are 46
chromosomes (23 pairs). Chromosomes carry DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) and genes are found on
this DNA.

There can be different versions of the same gene. These are called alleles. As there…

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7) What is discontinuous variation?

8) What is speciation? Explain how geographical isolation can lead to speciation

9) What is an allele?

10) Give two symptoms of:

a. Cystic Fibrosis
b. Sickle Cell




A concise, well written set of notes with a fair amount of detail on variation,speciation, classification and genes with  a useful set of short questions at the end. These would be suitable for any GCSE Biology or science student ending to study these topics.

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