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William Paley
· William Paley is the discovery of the best know example of this approach is the
`watch' analogy.
· He argued if you came across a watch lying on the ground. Picked up and examined
it, you would come to the conclusion that it was work of a human designer.
· Various things in the world work together in a way that even more complex than the
watch, and it is therefore reasonable to conclude that the world must also be the work
of a designer ­ God.
· He notes that his argument would not be weakened by the fact that he might never
have seen a watch being made, nor having known an artist capable of making one.
Nor is it necessary to understand how it is made, most people do not know how it is
done. But that does not weaken the assumption that they are manufactured by
someone who does understand.…read more

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Aquinas
· Goal-orientated activities are the result of intelligent planning and design.
· "If you see an arrow flying through the air, you conclude it has been shot by an
archer."
· Inanimate things seem to work together in the world in ordering to bring about a
result.
· It is not necessary to understand the functions of all parts in order to see that it is an
intelligent design, and he says that nobody would think that the arrangement of the
parts of the watch might have come about by chance.
· He rejects the idea that the mechanism was not proof of the working of the designer,
but only a feature of our minds which make us interpret it that way.…read more

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Richard Dawkins
· He agrees that it is unlikely that life in the universe came about by a single chance,
there is no reason, he suggests, that it could not have come through a series of
chances by a series of very small randomly generated steps. Each one increasing the
likelihood of the next.
· He challenges the assumption made by humans that the universe has a purpose. The
notion of purpose he suggest is a human conceit because we are purpose driven and
as a result look at the world through `purpose ­coloured spectacles.'
· Why is it necessary to have religious faith to find something important and significant
in life. `We are grotesquely lucky to be here.' He claims.
· It has no mind and no minds eye. It does no plan for the future. It has no vision, no
foresight, no sight at all. If it can be said to play the role of the watchmaker in nature it
is the blind watchmaker.…read more

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Richard Swinburne
· The evidence of design and order in the universe increases the
probability of the existence of God. God being omnipotent is able to
produce a world orderly in these respects.
· The very existence of the universe, the fact the universe is ordered,
the existence of consciousness, human opportunities to be good,
the pattern of history, the evidence of miracles and religious
experience.
· They cannot except that it came about by chance, and are mire
inclined to accept the probability of God, on the grounds as much of
any other.…read more

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F.R. Tennant
· The universe possesses a natural beauty that goes beyond that which is
necessary to live.
· Some of the beauty is part of the order the order. The beautiful pattern of
the stars, for example the changing colours of the seasons.
· What may appear inelegant, inefficient or imperfect to humans may be
perfectly fulfilling its purpose as far as God is concerned.
· A logical conclusion is that we are able to say nothing at all about God.
· The existence of God only reflects what humans believe that a loving and
omnipotent God would have created…read more

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