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Classification and Diagnosis of Scizophrenia

Clinical Characteristics

Schizophrenics lose touch with reality.

Positive and negative symptoms- the symptoms of schizophrenia are typically divided
into positive and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms are those that appear to
reflect and excess or distortion of normal functions. Negative symptoms are those
that appear to…

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- delusions.

Hallucinations.

Disorganised speech.

Grossly disorganised or catatonic behaviour.

They will also have below normal functioning in relationships and at work
Signs of disturbance must have been present for six months.

Problems with Diagnosis

Diagnosis has been inconsistent over the yrs.

In the 1950's the term was used for…

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Reliability



Reliabilitiy refers to the consistency of a measuring instrument such as a
questionnaire or scale, to assess the severity of their schizophrenic symptoms.
Reliability of such questionnaires or scales can be measured in terms of two
independent assessors to give similar diagnoses (`inter-rater' reliability) or
whether tests used to…

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varying from 1-134 days. The test- retest reliability (correlation of scores across the two test
periods was high at .84.

Evaluation:

Test-retest reliability- measures of cognitive functioning are vital in the diagnosis of
schizophrenia, must have test-retest reliability to be ueful in this role.
Prescott et al 1986 analysed the…

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Prognosis- people diagnoses as schizophrenia rarely share the same symptoms, nor
any evidence that they share the same outcomes. Bentall at al 1988 Prognosis for
patient varies with about 20% recovering their previous level of functioning, 10%
achieving significant and lasting improvement, 30% showing some improvement with
some relapses. A…

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Found normal people could get themselves diagnosed as Schizophrenic and put into
a psychiatric hospital just by claiming they were hearing voices.

In a follow up study the reliability of diagnosis was checked by warning hospitals to
expect fake patients during the next 3 months. 41 patients were suspected, 19…

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