Schizophrenia Project

A project on schizophrenia including clinical characteristics, reliability and validity of diagnosis, biological and psychological explanations of schizophrenia and evaluation and biological and psychological therapies including appropriateness and effectiveness. Grade B.

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  • Created on: 30-05-12 11:00
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According to the ICD-10:

Someone must either have one of these Or two of these symptoms for at least a
symptoms for at least a month month
Thought echo, insertion, withdrawal, and Persistent hallucinations.
broadcasting. The individual may believe that
thoughts are being taken out/ put into their…

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Catatonic Behaviour This refers to bizarre and abnormal motor
Negative symptom movements. For example, holding the body
in a rigid stance, moving in a frenzied way,
peculiar facial movements, copying
movements of others.
Delusions Bizarre beliefs that seem real to the person
Positive symptom with schizophrenia, but they are not…

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different. For instance in some cultures hearing voices would be a good thing but in western
societies this would be something deemed as needed to be treated. There is also the issue
in classification of diagnosis in that, for schizophrenia especially; there are many symptoms
which cross over with other…

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Harrison et al. (1988): Schizophrenia is diagnosed more frequently in African Americans and
African-Caribbean populations. It is difficult to determine whether this is due to greater
genetic vulnerability or psychosocial factors (as being part of an ethnic minority).
Misdiagnosis may occur where there is a misinterpretation of cultural differences in…

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If a sibling has schizophrenia = 8% concordance
Someone randomly selected = 1%

Gottesman and Bertelsen (1989) also conducted a number of family studies and found that:

If one parent is an identical twin and has schizophrenia
participants had a 17% chance of developing schizophrenia
If one parent is an…

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labelled as MZ twins. It is also hard to compare results of twin studies as they may use
different diagnosing criteria (DSM/ICD).

There are two arguments against the view that MZ concordance rates are high due to
greater environmental similarity:

Lytton (1997) - MZ twins have more similar treatment from…

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The dopamine hypothesis was formed from finding that some drugs, such as amphetamines
and L-dopa, work by increasing the level of dopamine in the brain. Drugs such as these also
produce states of being which are similar to paranoid schizophrenia in normal individuals.
These drugs also affect the severity of…

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this could raise a number of social and ethical issues. There are other biological factors that
may be implicated in schizophrenia such as pregnancy/birth factors, substance abuse and
biological vulnerability to stress. Also, the biological explanation for schizophrenia has been
criticised for being too reductionist and for providing an oversimplified…

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the EE explanation, there are also high relapse rates amongst those recovering from
schizophrenia that are not in contact with any former family members, so the expressed
emotion hypothesis may not be entirely true.

Many studies of EE are correlational which means they show a link between the levels of…

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memory function in individuals diagnosed as suffering from schizophrenia and their nearest
relatives. Some similarities have been found, but the data available so far fail to explain why
only some people with cognitive malfunctioning actually develop schizophrenia while others
in the family do not.

Cognitive psychologists suggest that disturbed thinking…


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