SCHIZOPHRENIA - PRIMARY and SECONDARY SYMPTOMS and PROGRESSION

primary and secondary symptoms and progression of schizophrenia

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Primary and Secondary Symptoms and Progression of Schizophrenia
Symptoms of schizophrenia
The symptoms of schizophrenia can be divided into two categories. These are linked to a biological
element in addition to the symptoms.
Positive symptoms (Type 1 schizophrenia) ­ hallucinations, delusions, thoughts and speech
disturbances, disorganised behaviour
Responsive to drug treatment
Abnormalities found in the limbic system ­ physical difference in the brain
Negative symptoms (Type 2 schizophrenia) ­ avolition (flatness), absence of emotion, absence of
social functions
Less responsive to drugs
Abnormalities found in the frontal lobes and enlarged ventricles
Positive and negative symptoms are primary symptoms.
Secondary symptoms
These follow on from the primary symptoms (also referred to as impairments). These secondary
symptoms are a direct result of having the disorder.
They include:
Social ­ unemployment, social drift, institutionalism, rejection, prejudice, e.g. 80% of
homeless people show signs of schizophrenia
Psychological ­ dependency, poor coping, loss of confidence, no motivation
Progression of schizophrenia
Prodomal phase ­ positive symptoms are mild allowing for individual to function reasonably well
Active phase ­ range of positive symptoms increases and becomes stronger. Phase can last for
longer periods (days/months/years)
Residual phase ­ obvious and active symptoms seem to subside and relative normality can seem to
return. Negative symptoms persist, with the individual being unable to function socially and at work
Evaluation

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There is no absolute agreement and the positive-negative distinction.…read more

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