Sampling Notes - AS OCR Psychology Unit 1

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Psychology Notes Sampling
Opportunity Sample ­ The sample is chosen based on who is available at the specific time
and place of the investigation
Easy
Cheap
Convenient
Biased
Not representative ­ e.g. all students in psychology class rather than all subjects
Selfselected Sample ­ The participants respond to an advertisement and volunteer
themselves for the experiment
Cheap
Easy
Convenient
Biased ­ volunteer bias e.g. all volunteers are likely to be highly motivated/enthusiastic
leading to "angel" demand characteristics
Not representative
Random Sample ­ The sample is chosen at random and each member of the target
population has an equal chance of being chosen
Cheap
Easy
Unbiased
Almost impossible to do a random sample with a large target population ­ takes too long
etc.
Not all participants chosen may want to take part
· NOT a systematic sample ­ that's when every nth person in a list is chosen to
participate
Quota Sample ­ When the target population is divided into subgroups and a quota is taken
from each group using an opportunity sample
More representative than using just an opportunity sample because there are equal
depiction of subgroups
Quotas may be biased even though the subgroups are representative

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