sampling methods

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Research methods
Sampling
The target population is the group from whom the sample is drawn. For example, if
the sample of participants is taken from sixth form colleges in Leeds, the findings
can only apply to that group of people and not all sixth form students in the UK or
all the people around the world.
It is not usually possible to test the entire target population so therefore
psychologists use sampling techniques to choose people who are representative
(typical) of the population as a whole. If your sample is representative then you
can generalise the results of your study to the wider population.
Opportunity sampling
This is the sampling technique most used by psychology students. It consists of
taking the sample from people who are available at the time of the study and fit
the criteria you are looking for.
Doesn't show the entire population so they are not representative and
therefore are biased meaning results will lack validity.
Quick and easy therefore you can get a large sample which tends to be
more representative of the target population.
Random sampling
This is a sampling technique which is defined as a sample in which every member of
the population has an equal chance of being chosen. This involves identifying
everyone in the target population and then selecting the number of participants
you need in a way that gives everyone in the population an equal chance of being
picked. A sample is taken by writing down the names of all those in the target
population on equal sizes of slips of paper and folding them in the same way and
putting them in a container. The researcher then mixes them up and picks out the
required amount for their sample, they mix them after each participant is drawn
from the container. The researcher closes their eyes when drawing a participant
from the container.
small random samples are always biased as they don't represent the whole
population accurately
Not everyone who is in the sample will want to take part in your study so
you may not get a representative sample.
Time consuming so it is hard to get a large sample which are typically
more representative of the target population than smaller samples.
Stratified sampling

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Research methods
Involves classifying the population into categories and then choosing a sample
which consists of participants from each category in the same proportions as they
are in the target population.
Most representative sampling method as long as the categories are
identified correctly.
Time consuming as categories have to be decided as well as writing all the
participants names down before selecting them at random, from eah
category.…read more

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