notes on the different ways to collect samples of participants for a study

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Random sampling
Every person in a target population is given a number on equal sized pieces
of paper and then several pieces of paper are selected from a hat, giving
everyone an equal chance of being selected.
Strengths- it usually generates a representative sample
Weaknesses- it can result in a biased sample especially if the sample is
small. The sample will not then represent the target population
It is usually impossible to gain access to everybody in the
target population so some of those pulled out of the hat may
not be able to take part in the study.
Volunteer sampling
Volunteer sampling is when people put adverts in newspapers or corridors
to ask people to volunteers to take part in a study.
Strengths- generates a large sample quickly
Weaknesses- people who volunteer are likely to be different from those
who don't volunteer (perhaps they will try harder or be more subject to the
demand characteristics) the sample will always be biased.
Opportunity sampling
Sometimes groups of people can be formed naturally, such a classroom of
students or people who walk past a certain location at a certain time. These
people can be approached to take part in the study.
Strengths- generates a large sample quickly
Weaknesses- it is likely that the sample will be biased as only the people in
the opportunity will be sampled. This will lead to low population validity.


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