S1 Glossary of Terms

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Statistics Glossary
Numerical Methods
Population ­ a set of values incorporating every value measured.
Sample ­ a set of values selected from the much larger population.
Measure of average ­ the mean is usually preferred as the MOA.
, , ,...,
Mean ­ an estimation of the average. =
Mode ­ the value which occurs most frequently.
Median ­ the middle value of a string of ordered values.
Ordered ­ implies that the values are rearranged in ascending order.
Outliers ­ unusually large or unusually small values when compared to other values in the data set.
Measure of spread ­ the standard deviation if usually preferred as MOS.
Standard deviation ­ ­ the measure of the average deviation of the values from their mean.
Population variance ­ ­ the square of the population standard deviation.
Range ­ the difference between the highest and the lowest values.
Interquartile range (IQR) ­ the difference between the upper and lower quartiles.
Lower quartile ­ ­ the median of the ordered values to the left of the median.
Upper quartile ­ ­ the median of the ordered values to the right of the median.
Frequency distribution ­ a list of integer values together with their corresponding frequencies.
Grouped frequency distribution ­ a list of continuous classes together with their corresponding
frequencies.
Linear scale ­ if the frequency increases as the class increases.
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Probability
Trials ­ a part of a statistical experiment.
Event ­ an outcome, or set of outcomes.
Probability of event A ­ ­ is measured on a scale of 0 to 1.
Relative frequency ­ an estimation of equally likely outcomes.
Complementary event ­ A' ­ the probability that event A does not occur.
Mutually exclusive ­ two events which cannot occur together.
Exhaustive ­ the term used when one of two events must
m occur.…read more

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Binomial Distribution
Variable ­ a characteristic which can be counted or measured.
Random variable ­ when a variable is subject to (random) variation.
Discrete data ­ when a list of all possible values may be created.
Continuous data ­ data which can take any value.
(Probability) distribution ­ ­ the probability that the random variable X has discrete value x.
(Cumulative) distribution function ­ ­ if a range is given for P(X, x) then it is a function.…read more

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Estimation
Unbiased ­ one of the criteria which must be adhered to, to use a sample is accurate to a population
Representative - one of the criteria which must be adhered to, to use a sample is accurate to a
population
Simple random sample ­ the most straightforward way of obtaining an unbiased and representative
sample.
Sampling frame ­ a list of all the members of the population.
(Sample) statistics ­ or s2 ­ statistics for numerical manipulation of the sample.…read more

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