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Russification: form of cultural assimilation where non-Russian communities were pressured
into adopting and prioritising the Russian language and culture over their own.
Uvarov first formulated this ideology in 1770 with three key areas defined as: autocracy,
orthodoxy and `Russianness'.
Previous understanding of Russification: all subjects regardless of their nationality are
accepted by the Tsar as being an individual ethnic group as long as they professed their
allegiance to the Russian state.…read more

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Jews were restricted to small settlements inhabited by merchants, called the Pale, which
segregated Jews unless they converted to the Orthadox church. Consequently only a minority
were able to study at university.
Alexander III wrote "let us not forget that it was the Jews who crucified Jesus", in response to
his policy in 1887 which restricted the numbers of Jews in higher education.
A large scale wave of anti-Jewish riots swept the Russian empire because they were blamed
for Alexander II's death.…read more

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In 1889, the minimal powers that the zemstva had were removed; local justices of the peace
were also removed and replaced by a system of land captains. In this way, the government
further extended its power at a local level. Only the Minister of the Interior could remove the
land captains and at a local level each land captain was given draconian rights (sending
offenders into exile, flogging and handing out the death penalty).…read more


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