Russia - Shifting Alliances (Stalin's Rise to Power)

A table detailing the different periods of alliances between the contenders for power following Lenin's death and leading up to Stalin's rise to power.

Each stage details the alliances, opposition and key issues.

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Ruling The Triumvirate The Duumvirate Stalin
Alliance Zinoviev, Kamenev, Stalin Bukharin, Stalin
Comrade Card-Index or the Grey Blur
Stalin, as General Secretary, used dominant position socialism in one country
in Party against Trotsky continuation of NEP adoption of left-wing eco. policy, mastery of Party
machine, ideological prestige and tactical
Zinoviev and Kamenev argued Stalins case in combination they controlled most important manoeuvring assured his victory
following calls to remove him from Party in Lenins aspects of Soviet political life w/ both the power and - advocated rapid industrialisation and agricultural
Testament authority to rule collectivisation - policies he previously condemned
- argument accepted by CC and Stalin kept job - could command majority of CC and Politburo
powerbase at heart of Party
Opposition Left Opposition New Opposition Right Opposition
Faction Trotsky Zinoviev, Kamenev Bukharin, Rykov, Tomsky
Trotsky neglected powerful position in Politburo United Opposition Bukharin appeared in stronger position
following poor health, missing important meetings Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev - still considered favourite of Party
and excluding self from significant discussions - power rested on control of Soviet media - could
advocate own policies and discredit opponents
rejected idea of socialism in one country
1925: Trotsky forced to resign as Head of Red Army
Rykov was important ally because = Head of State
1927: all three expelled from Party
Key Issues · great industrialisation debate · great industrialisation debate · great industrialisation debate
· future of the Revolution · world revolution · future of the Revolution
· future of the Revolution
explicit objective of keeping Trotsky out of power - ideological battle
destroyed his influence by questioning his ideology kulak grain strike meant food shortages in major - Bukharins theoretical prestige diminished w/
- capitalised on Cult of Lenin, suggesting he was cities and rising grain prices failures of NEP
disloyal to their former leader - Stalin wrote a book that made Leninism more
- invented term Trotskyism, incompatible with Stalins growing power w/in Party accessible to the people - led to increasing stature
Leninism and condemned because was - used position as Head of Central Control
considered a faction Commission to formally discipline Trotskyists Stalin = excellent at manipulating Party
Bukharin = much less able tactician
split after apparently achieving goal of defeating 1928: Stalin rejected NEP as it began to fail, thus - had little success when adopted devious methods
Trotsky - lack of common enemy ending alliance
Stalins victory formalised at CC meeting, April 1929
- Bukharin = forced to admit political errors and
necessity of forced indust. and collectiv.


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