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The Rural-Urban Fringe Reindustrialisation, social exclusion, wasteland,
dereliction and global economic changes. Neglected Landscape strong agricultural
The Rural-Urban Fringe is the boundary zone policy, weak countryside policy, weak agricultural
outside the urban area proper, where rural and The issues faced by CBD's: economy and weak urban economy. Consists of
urban land uses intermix. Overcrowding, businesses moving in/out, could smaller markets, reduced public transport,
CBD's consist of;- grow another city within the city (such as reduction in urbanisation, lack of confidence,
- old, historical buildings such as Churches London), people move out due to house prices, neglect of maintenance, reduction in investment.
and museums suburban fringes changes over time, expends Example outskirts of Dundee.
- terraced housing which is poor and cheap and retreats, terraced housing converted into
for low income factory workers offices, buildings get demolished out of town Simplified Landscapes strong agricultural
- shops and post offices shopping areas, CBD could retreat into itself and policy, strong agricultural economy, weak urban
- flats and offices the housing could be old with no running water. economy and strong countryside planning.
Case Study - Swansea Consists of increased investment, technical
- large ethnic background and family ties efficiency, increased scale of population and
- smog pollution, light pollution and noise Beyond the Rural-Urban Fringe: strong political influence.
pollution The density of the population is considerably less. Example - Edinburgh.
- congestion, poor roads The distance between towns is greater.
- Population are mainly working class, the More settlements in the form of villages and Valued Landscape weak agricultural policy,
roads are small and cramped, poor and hamlets. strong countryside planning, strong urban
cheap housing, pollution, high crime rate Agriculture is the dominant land use. economy and strong agricultural economy.
and an older population. The density of major roads decrease. Consists of anti urban-sprawl, conservation, small
The level of commuting decreases. farm preservation, few changes in method of
Causes and Effects of Inner City Decline: Visits from London day trippers fall off production, lack of political influence, uncertain
Businesses move away people move away considerably. markets and farming factors are restricted.
decline in area derelict housing. Environmental quality is generally better. Example Dundee
Cheap housing government housing no Pressures for Change are Rural-Urban Fringe: Rural Settlement Changing and Reasons:
respect for the housing decline in area. Leisure, agriculture and industry. Rural referred to areas which are less densely
Green Belt Act imposed strict limitations on populated of a country which are recognised by
Busy nightlife noise pollution litter people development. New buildings were only allowed if their visual countryside components. Impossible
move away decline in area. they were seen as beneficial to the community or to give a single definition as they can merge into
nation. The land is worth roughly £25,000 an acre urban areas and vary between countries.
High personal mobility allows more affluent to for farming and £500,000 for housing.
move to suburbs manufacturing industry Redevelopments of existing land uses are Cloke's Index of Rurality:
decentralises due to changing location needs difficult, such as Chessington Theme Park. Cloke used 16 different criteria to identify the
development of suburban business services due Example Epson Hospital Cluster pattern of rurality in England and Wales. He
to rapidly increasing purchasing power central concluded that beyond the urban area there are
tax, buses decline with loss of domestic, industrial Factors that Influence the Character of the Fringe four levels of rurality;-
and services tax contribution infrastructure and There are four types of landscapes that can - Extreme rural
social provision falls due to cut in income area influence the character of a Rural-Urban Fringe. - Intermediate rural
remains focal point for poor and new immigrants - Intermediate non-rural
rising unemployment due to secondary and Disturbed Landscape strong urban influence - Extreme non-rural.
tertiary losses increasing demand on social economy, weak agricultural economy, weak Extreme rural areas tend to be located within
service provision, rising tax burden for remaining agricultural policy and weak countryside policy. areas of mountainous regions where urbanisation
contribution. Consists of urban sprawl, more housing, more would be difficult and expensive.
*this cycle repeats itself* recreation, industrialised growth, more services,
increased mobility and higher incomes.
Example outskirts of Newcastle.