Role of Emotion on memory

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Theory Arguments For and Against
Flashbulb Memories Brown and Kulik 1977 BROWN AND KULIK- found that all of their USA participants had a high recall of
proposed the idea of the assassination of Kennedy. However, black participants were far more
flashbulb memories. FB likely than white participants to recall the assassination of a famous civil rights
memories are exceptionally worker. It was relevant to the participants so they became shocked and this
vivid, surround a specific created a flashbulb memory. However NEISSER is critical of FBMs. He
important event in the investigated memories of the Challenger disaster. However, the participant's
individual life and are resistant recall of the events varied dramatically for most showing that FBMs may not
to forgetting over time. exist. PLATANIA AND HERTKORN- the recall of princess Diana's death was
A flashbulb memory is an recorded over a 10 week period. Many believed that they would have better
accurate and long lasting recall of Diana's death but although the confidence in their ability was high
memories formed during there accuracy actually decreased over time. They actually had more accuracy
intense emotion. It's a in everyday events which is evidence to support the theory that FBMs don't
memory of the surroundings exist. SQUIRE- tracked the recall of participant's memories of the OJ Simpson
of the event e.g. who, what, verdict over 3 years. All participants claimed to have excellent recall of
where and why etc. hearing the verdict for the first time but as time went on there were many
more major distortions in their recalls and many still believed that their
account of events was accurate.
Repression It's a form of ego defence LEVINGER AND CLARKE- compared recall of emotionally neutral words
whereby anxiety- provoking (windows) and those that are emotionally loaded words (fear) and found
material is kept out of the significantly poorer recall for those that were emotionally loaded. This
conscious awareness as a supports as it shows that words that are offensive and upsetting to us are
means of coping. pushed out of our consciousness. KLEIN- studied people reading a list of
Repression can be related to words in 2 conditions, the first being a control and the 2nd being when the
extreme trauma or everyday experimenter insulted the participants whilst they were learning. Those who
forgetting. Freud says that were insulted had poorer recall. Klein says that this is because the words had
there are no mental led to negative emotions which led them to repress the words. This supports
accidents- whatever you the theory of repression. CASE STUDY EVIDENCE= some criminals are unable
forget you have chosen to to recall committing crimes (BUT is this unwillingness to recall the crime or are
forget for a reason.

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However in many trauma cases
including a lot of abuse cases the problem if flashbacks not forgetting.…read more

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