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Slide 1

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Rocks and Metals Revision
· Where are metals found?
· The chemical form in which they exist naturally
· Definition of an ore
· The reactivity series
· Methods of extraction
· Reduction
· Extraction of iron using the Blast furnace…read more

Slide 2

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Metal alloys
· Steel
· Smart alloys
· Transition metals
· Copper
· Aluminium
· Titanium
· Recycling metals…read more

Slide 3

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Where are metals found? How they exist and
the definition of an ore.
Most metals are found as compounds in rocks.
Some metals, for example gold, chromium
and copper can be found "native" which
means that they are found as the actual metal.
An ore contains enough metal or metal
compound to make it worth extracting the
Some rocks might contain a very small % of a
metal compound but it will be extracted if the
metal is rare like platinum. It is then sold for
a very high price.…read more

Slide 4

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Ease of Extraction
The metals in the middle of the series, i.e. Reactivity Series
just below carbon, such as zinc, iron and
lead are obtained by heating the metal 1. Potassium
oxide with coke. 2. Sodium
3. Calcium
4. Magnesium
5. Aluminium
Coke is coal which has been heated to 6. Carbon
remove impurities - leaving a relatively 7. Zinc
pure form of carbon. 8. Iron
9. Lead
10. Hydrogen
The metals at the top of the reactivity series 11. Copper
such as sodium and aluminium, must be 12. Mercury
extracted by electrolysis of molten 13. Silver
compounds, such as chlorides or oxides. 14. Gold…read more

Slide 5

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Reduction is the removal of oxygen from an
Extraction of Iron
The most common iron ore is called haematite
Iron is extracted from iron(III) oxide in the
Blast Furnace using coke as the reducing
agent.…read more

Slide 6

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Extraction of Iron in the Blast Furnace
Molten iron is tapped from the furnace and allowed to set into
blocks called `pigs'. The `pig iron' produced is only 96% pure.
The impurities make it brittle and of limited use, so it is further
purified in the basic oxygen furnace.…read more

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