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FACTS I NEED TO KNOW

PAPER 1

1. Origins of the first world war
a. Why were there two armed camps in Europe in 1914?
i. Austro-Hungary was ruled by Emperor Franz Josef
ii. Austro-Hungary was militarily weak, and had internal problems as it had two disputing…

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v. Dreadnoughts were superior to all older battleships, s Britain needed to build as many
as possible to maintain naval supremacy.
vi. The tension peaked in 1909 when Germany refused to say how many they would
build.
vii. British government planned to build four dreadnoughts in 1909…

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xl. Russia wanted access to the Mediterranean through the black sea because its main
ports (Vladivostok) froze up in winter. It therefore needed an ally to weaken Turkey.
xli. Serbia wanted to expand. (A `Greater Serbia').
xlii. Turkey was very weak and corrupt. (The `sick man of…

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lxx. 28th July 1914 - Austria declares war on Serbia
lxxi. 30th July 1914 ­ Russia starts to mobilise (Serb-Russian alliance)
lxxii. 1st August 1914 ­ Germany declares war on Russia (Blank cheque)
lxxiii. 1st August 1914 - France declares war on Austro-Hungary. (Military alliance with
Russia)…

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3. North Schleswig went to Denmark.
4. A `Polish Corridor was created', giving newly formed Poland access to
the sea, and separating East Prussia from the rest of Germany. (Prussia
was the key state in Germany).
5. Lithuania, Latvia, Finland and Estonia made independent. (Threat of
Communism)…

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