Rivers Summary

Made specifically for Edexcel geo unit 2, but suitable for other exam boards.Includes formations of landforms.

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RIVERS ­ SUMMARY
HARD ENGINEERING SOFT ENGINEERING
1. Embankments ­ high banks built on 1. Washlands ­ areas on floodplain that
riverbanks are allowed to flood
They stop water from spreading across They stop water from spreading across Not expensive. These areas cannot be used for other
the floodplain. the floodplain. Unspoilt, natural environment things.
2. Channelisation ­ 2. Afforestation ­ trees are planted in
deepening/straightening the river the drainage basin
Allows more water in channel. Takes Allows more water in channel. Takes Trees intercept rainfall. These areas cannot be used for other
water (away) quickly. water (away) quickly. activities, like farming.
3. Flood relief channels ­ extra channels 3. Land use zoning ­ allocating areas of
built next to rivers land to different uses
Accommodates extra water from the Accommodates extra water from the Less costly. Public cannot access some areas.
river. river.
4. Flood warning systems ­ places at
risk can be warned in advance
People get a chance to prepare/evacuate Sometimes it is too late to warn.

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Case study ­ River/Flood management on River Stour, Blandford Forum, Dorset, UK.…read more

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1.INTERLOCKING SPURS 2. LEVEES 3. FLOODPLAINS
4. WATERFALL 5. MEANDER 6. OXBOW LAKE
LANDFORM FORMATION (Remember your answer must have 2 parts: 1) SEQUENCE ­ stepbystep formation of the landform. 2) PROCESS H (force of water
hitting banks and bed), A (Force of stones/pebbles/load hitting/eroding away banks/bed), C (The force of the river (water + pebbles) acting on banks/bed).…read more

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