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Erosion landforms: waterfalls and
gorges
· A sudden and vertical drop of a river somewhere in
its course. Usually in the more mountainous area in
the early part of its course, where the riverbed is
steeper and drops more.
· Hard rock, the cap rock, is what the river flows on,
but beneath is soft rock. As the water falls to a
different level, it will erode the soft rock at the
bottom ­ called undercutting. The water beneath is
called a plunge pool.
· Over time, the rock is eroded away so that the hard
rock on top is no longer supported. This overhang
falls.
· This process happens continually, meaning the
waterfall retreats upstream.…read more

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Diagram of the formation of waterfalls…read more

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Erosion and deposition: meanders and
oxbow lakes
· Landforms that are usually found in the middle of a
river's course. Meanders lead to oxbow lakes.
· At a turn in a river, a meander, the fastest water is at
the outer corner, with the water at the inner corner
moving sluggishly.
· The fast, powerful water will cause erosion on the
outer side, and deposition on the slow moving side.
· This will continue to happen until the erosion alters
the course of the river. The meanders will grow
closer together until they meet. The small land that
remains in between is named the meander neck.
· When the two parts of the river meet, the river will
follow this straighter path than the curving one/
This means the original meander soon gets cut off,
referred to as an oxbow lake.…read more

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Diagram of the formation of oxbow
lakes…read more

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Deposition landforms: levees
· Levees are the banks (sides) of a river in its lower
course.
· The river will flood and break its banks. This mean
deposition in the river gets carried onto the land at
the side of the river; the smaller material is carried
further along.
· The area that the river floods into is known as the
flood plain.
· As this happens over time, the material from
flooding builds up. This means that levees are the
raised areas of land by the side of the river.
· Usually takes place during heavy rainfall or with
discharge.…read more

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