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Rivers Case Studies

High Force waterfall

River Tees
22m high
Resistant caprock = whin sill
Soft rock = limestone and sandstone
500m long gorge

Carlisle 2005 ­ MEDC

Carlisle is located in the north of Cumbria in the flat land north of Keswick and Ambleside which
are areas of high…

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People and their vehicles left stranded as roads became impassable
1865 properties flooded, most of which were residential
300 business premises flooded and they were unable to open because their stock was damaged
Communications affected as waters spread over the flood plain

Long term impacts

Some families were not insured…

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Pakistan 2010 ­ LEDC

The total course of the River Indus was flooded from Chilas in the north east and the flooding
continues all the way down to the south west where the river enters the sea.
The approximate length of the area flooded was over 1,500km

Physical causes:


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The UN criticised the international community for responding slowly, despite the ferocity and
magnitude of the disaster.
International relations between Pakistan and the USA improved due to the USAID given.

Management strategies:

Short-term Long-term
Emergency evacuation began using the Pakistani Pakistan Government created the Federal Flood
Army. The success was…

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Quaggy Waterways Action Group (QWAG) came up with the solution to:

Bring the river back to ground level, making a new channel running through Sutcliffe Park
The culvert remained to take some of the discharge underground during spate
A new lake was created to store water when the culvert became…


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