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Factor Evidence and Explanation
Everyday Use pathological behaviour to cope with daily hassles.
NIDA stressors (relationships, workplace etc.) contribute to initiation,
Stress maintenance and relapse of addiction.
Smoking increases stress, by Hajek et al. found it may reduce the stress of
Traumatic Exposure to severe stress makes us more vulnerable, like parental loss or
child abuse. PTSD does too.
Stress Driessen et al. 30% drug addicts and 15% alcoholics have PTSD.
Cloniger found two types of alcoholics:
Type 1 drink to reduce tension (vulnerable to stress)
Type 2 to relieve boredom.
Peer Smokers tend to befriend smokers.
McAlister et al. transitions to increased smoking levels are linked to peer
Pressure encouragement and expected popularity.
Social Bandura addiction is learned through observation and modelling of others.
Adolescents imitate the behaviour of those they have the most contact
Duncan et al. exposure to peer models means increased likelihood of
Social Abrams and Hogg adopting norms and behaviours that are central to a
group's identity. In a `smoker' peer group, members are more likely to have
Identity similar smoking habits.
Mitchell stereotypes of specific social crowds motivate adolescent
smoking. However, little is known about the extent of this influence over
group members don't know whether demands can be resisted if conflict
Age Young adolescence social crowd (peers) have more impact on smoking
and drug use.
Brown et al. - in later adolescence, close friends and romantic partners
become more influential on attitudes and behaviours.
Neuroticism Eysenck a biological theory based on three dimensions:
Extraversion chronically under-aroused and bored; seek external
and stimulation to increase cortical arousal.
Psychoticism Neuroticism experience negative effects (depression, anxiety etc.)
Psychoticism hostility and impulsivity (reaction with little forethought).
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Weintraub et al. studied Parkinson's sufferers.
Treatment drugs to increase dopamine. Side effect increase in
impulse-control disorders (like gambling).
Shows higher dopamine impulsivity and addiction.
Tri-Dimensio Cloniger three traits that predispose individuals towards substance
nal Theory of Novelty seeking engaging in new experiences.
Addictive Harm avoidance worrying, being pessimistic etc.
Behaviour Reward dependence extent to which they learn quickly from rewarding
experiences and repeat the behaviour.
Research correlational.…read more