First 309 words of the document:
Revision Summary for Biology 2: Enzymes
You should know and understand the following:
· Long chains of amino acids are folded and coiled into special shapes
to form enzymes.
· Enzymes speed up the rate of chemical reactions in the body.
· Enzymes lower the activation rate of chemical reactions.
· The reactants (substrate) fit into an area of the enzyme called the
· Enzyme-controlled reactions are affected by temperature and pH:
o You should be able to describe experiments which show these
effects and explain the results in terms of the effect on the
active site of the enzyme.
· Describe the raw materials and products of respiration.
· Describe where these reactions take place in cells.
· Explain why more active cells such as muscle cells have greater
numbers of mitochondria than less active cells.
· Explain how enzymes are involved in the digestion of food.
· Describe the location and action of the enzymes which catalyse the
breakdown of carbohydrates (starch), proteins and lipids.
· Explain digestion in terms of the molecules involved.
· Describe how pH affects enzymes in different parts of the gut.
· Explain that bile emulsifies fats and how this increases their rate of
· Explain how biological detergents work.
· Describe some of the ways in which enzymes are used in the food
You should be able to use your knowledge of how Science works to do
· Describe and explain investigations into the effects of temperature
and pH on enzyme action.
· Describe and explain investigations to show that oxygen is taken up
and carbon dioxide is released during aerobic respiration.
· Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using enzymes in
home and in industry
CEM Oct 2007